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?5rTO^^'^i5«:?''^*'"^ 



:^-. 



THE 



LOG OF THE "PET." 



[Z7<c right of Translation is reserved] 



TWO SUMMER CRUISES WITH 
THE BALTIC FLEET, 

In 1854—5. 

BBINO 

THE LOG OF THE "PET" YACHT, 8 TONS, R.T.Y.C. 




By THE Rev. ROBERT EDGAR HUGHES, M.A., 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Cambridge. 
SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 

LONDON: 

SMITH, ELDEE, & Co., 65, COENHILL. 

1856. 



3 J J. ^. //. 



lovdom: 

BEADVUmr AVD BTAira, PKIMTBtS, WBITKnUAm. 



\ 



CONTENTS. 

» 

FIEST CBmSE. 
CHAPTER I. 

PAOB 
DEPARTURE 1 

CHAPTER II. 

INLAND NAVIGATION 13 

CHAPTER III. 

THE BALTIC 24 

CHAPT:pi IV. 

THE VOYAGE 36 

CHAPTER V, 

THE VLEET 62 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE CA&IP 76 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE SIEGE 91 



▼^ CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PAOK 
HOMIWARD-BOUND liiD 

CHAPTER IX. 

HKAOBR RACK 155 

\ 

CHAPTER X. 

THE NORTH BKA 162 

SECOND CRUISE. 

— ♦ — 

CHAPTER I. 

OUTWARD-BOUND 174 

CHAPTER n. 

COPENHAGEN 186 

CHAPTER III. 

AT BEA 191 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE GULF . . 206 

CHAPTER V. 

KOTKA 215 

CHAPTER VI. 

BVEABORG 229 



CONTENTS. ▼ii 

CHAPTER VII. 

PAOK 
TBI B0MBARDHE17T 244 

CHAPTER VIII. 

MODERN TAOnCS 271 

CHAPTER IX. 

STOCKHOLM 291 

CHAPTER X. 

HOMEWARD . . 388 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



SUIOCKB KIGHT AT SEA lb fOM Title. 

PAOB 
CHART, SHOWING THE COURSE OF THE '' FET/' ON HER EIBST 

CRUISE, IN 1854 1 

ATTACK ON FORT TZEE, BOMARSUND 106 

CHART, SHOWING THE COURSE OF THE ** FBT," ON HER SECOND 

CRUISE, IN 1855 174 

GALE OFF 8VEAB0RG 232 

SYEABORG IN FLAMES, AND THE " PET " IN A ROW . . 266 



PEEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



It is for the most part expedient that those 
who launch their opinions upon the open waters, 
should receive such remarks as critics may bestow 
upon them without reply. 

If criticism be just, it is well to profit by it 
in silence, if thoughtless or unfair, it may well 
be neglected. 

Exceptional cases, however, may arise, when a 
man's opinions are misrepresented or misunder- 
stood. It is not necessary to submit to be paraded 
before the world as the advocate of measures which 
one repudiates, or the calumniator of a service 
which one admires. 

One Beviewer, evidently a man of taste and 
education, who has favoured my narrative with 



X PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

praise, which, from such a source, is .most wel- 
come, has, nevertheless, accused me, in harsh 
terms, of disparaging the British Navy ; and has 
made an allusion to birds of uncleanly habits; 
which, as I have nothing to do with the Navy, 
is inappropriate, as well as, perhaps, slightly 
inelegant. 

Surely a candid reader of what I have written 
cannot fail to perceive that the Royal Navy is a 
service which I lov€, honour, and admire ; that my 
sympathies are entirely witii the officers and men 
of our glorious sea service in all their hopes and 
aspirations — ^in all their disappointments and 
disgusts. 

I must have expressed my feelings strangely 
if I have not made it evident that. I love a man- 
of-war as a man loves his premier amour, j*3»^ 
reviens toujours. 

I must entreat this gentleman to believe that 
there is no remark in these pages reflecting upon 
our inaction which I have not heard echoed from 
lip to lip of those who wear the uniform of the ser- 
vice, and that I have received from officers of the 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. ,X1 

highest rank and distinction, expressions of their 
approval. 

Another charge, not to be so lightly disposed 
of is, that I have advocated harsh and inhuman 
measures. 

The gentlemen who have brought forward this 
charge are so extremely vague and illogical in 
their remarks, that I am at a loss to know whether 
from love of bloodshed I have advocated what I 
believe to be inhuman, or whether, from lack of 
logic on my part, I believe certain measures to 
be wise and humane, which are in reality otherwise. 
If they mean the former, I deny it solemnly : if 
they prefer the latter alternative, it is a case which 
should have been met by a few rational sentences 
rather than by a tirade of angry and often 
ungra'mmatical exclamations. 

I suppose that few men would be willing to advo- 
cate measures which they should believe to be 
opposed to true and sound humanity. On the 
other hand, I should consider it most contemptible 
to omit stem duties and to establish false principles 
in deference to a mistaken irrational outcry. 



XU PBEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

It is agreed that the Russian war can only be 
terminated by our success ; consequently, if this 
war be prolonged by feeble measures on our part 
it becomes not only a calamity, but a great and 
grievous sin at our door : it is stem duty no less 
than true humanity to render this necessary success 
speedy and sure. 

Now there is one principle of waging war, accord- 
ing to which we should omit no measures calculated 
to impair an enemy's resources, and to render his 
perseverance in war difficult and dangerous. 

His docks, factories, and stores, every good and 
chattel, the loss of which may impede his action, 
diminish his revenues, or make the war irksome to 
his influential subjects, should be nought out 
and destroyed. By harassing his seaboard we 
should compel him to maintain a large ' force 
imder arms ; by all means in our power we should 
endeavour to alienate the confidence of his subjects, 
to disturb his alliances, and make him tremble for 
his dependencies : there must, however, be no 
wanton destruction — no destruction which has not 
reference to the great end in view ; and every pre- 
caution must be taken to spare life. 



PBEFACE t6 the SECOND EDITION. xiii 

This is one principle ; but it is considered inhuman 
and severe. 

The other is, to confine the war to a series of 
encounters between the armed forces of the belli- 
gerents, and to abide the issue of the strife. 

This is doubtless a very comfortable arrangement 
for merchants and civilians in general, but it can 
scarcely be a very humane one, unless it be true 
that soldiers and sailors are free from all sense of 
pain, and that their parents, wives, and children can 
hear of their slaughter and mutilation without any 
serious discomposure. 

This, however, is the principle espoused by 
modem humanitarians, and by literary critics in 
general. 

Now there can be no difl&culty in perceiving that 
this principle is the most sanguinary of all, with the 
sole exception of the old internecine system ; and, at 
the same time, it is a method which, for a maritime 
power, is singularly disadvantageous. 

I am not at all disposed to overlook the suffering 
which would be caused by bombarding such towns 
as Helsingfors or Odessa. 



Xiy PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

Of course timely warning and opportunity for 
escape would be given; still, on the part of the 
poor, the loss of house and home is no trifling 
evil: the hurried flight to the nearest town, 
performed on foot by women and children; the 
supperless bivouac by night, the scanty meal begged 
by day, the loss of life and health by th^ weary 
way ; these are great and grievous woes. 

Again, the miseries of the rich are considerable : 
broken fortunes, ruined hopes, all the little ambi- 
tions and luxuries of life burnt up in a conflagration 
or scattered to the winds by an explosion ; sons 
bereft of their heritage, daughters portionless, a 
narrower home, a colder hearth, a cheerless old age : 
all these are no trifling items in the estimate of 
human suflfering; and God forbid that we should 
make light of them; but light and ludicrous they 
are when compared with the horrors of the battle 
field : they are of no moment whatever when opposed 
to the overwhelming pain and misery occasioned by 
such conflicts as Alma, Balaclava, or Inkermann. 

With those writers whose sympaliiies are all for 
pounds, shillings and pence, for com, groceries. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND "EDITION. XV 

timber and tar, I have no sentiment in common. 
My feelings, I confess, are all for the sufferings of 
flesh and blood, for the tears of bereaved kindred, 
for the pangs of mutilated men. I may be wrong ; but 
I would rather hear that a mepchant was bankrupt 
at Odessa, than that a soldier was killed in action ; 
I would rather learn that Helsingfors and Eeval 
were in flames, than I would read the details of 
another eighteenth of June, or the assault of 
another Malakhoff or Bedan. 

A man who has seen the distorted forms of killed 
and wounded soldiers, who has scanned with anxious 
dread that catalogue of human agony, horribly desig- 
nated as " the butcher's bill," can find little sympathy 
in his heart to spare for the woes and sorrows of 
private property; the reflection that this private 
property is replete with timber and tar for gun- 
boats, sulphur and saltpetre for gunpowder, clothes, 
provisions and ammunition for soldiers, all de- 
stined to compass the destruction of our own 
brave fellows — this reflection is fatal to such a 
sentiment. 

We have no right to be generous when the price- 



XVl PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

less, irreparable lives of men are at stake. Let us 
suppose that a new war be undertaken^ or an existing 
war prolonged in consequence of our generosity ; be- 
cause we are too generous to bum our enemy's effects, 
or bombard his commercial towns ; if that be so, 
every soldier's or sailor's life, whether friend or foe, 
lost in such a war, is a human sacrifice offered at 
the shrine of this base man-eating, mammon-idol, 
private property. It is the stem, solemn duty of 
the strong to use, without flinching, the whole 
power which God has given them to preserve peace 
and to terminate war; and, if we fail to do so, 
the blood of the slain will be required at our 
hands. 

The true scope for generosity and chivalry is in 
modifying and humanising, in some measure, the 
application of general principles ; which principles 
must be, from the nature of war, stem, relentless, 
and severe. 

The old internecine system of war, accord- 
ing to which the male inhabitants of the enemy's 
country were slain upon all occasions, and the 
women sold for slaves, must now be considered false 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. XVU 

in point of i>olicy, and, on the score of humanity, 
entirely inadmissible. 

In the same way, there is no advantage to 
be gained by destroying dwelling-houses, and 
personal effects : such proceedings are as contrary 
to policy as they are repulsive to humanity. 

But, when we come to consider the case of 
'factories, rope-walks, building-yards, warehouses 
and stores, such as those which abound at Helsing- 
fors, supplying food, money and ammunition, the 
nerves and sinews of war, the case is entirely 
^ different. The blow inflicted on the resources of a 
country by the loss of one or two such towns must 
be an important consideration, while the individual 
suffering occasioned by such severity, great as it 
undoubtedly is, cannot for a moment be compared 
with the complicated pain and sorrow caused by the 
humanitarian method of pitting armed men together, 
like fighting cocks, to maim and slaughter each other 
till one or other shall succumb. 

Those who are accused of undue severity would 
have no great objection to destroy any amount of 
our enemy's property in order to bring the struggle 

6 



XVUl PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

to an end, and for the future to make our foes count 
the cost of an English war: the champions of 
humanity consider this to be cruel; and, as an 
alternative, they greatly prefer to reduce our oppo- 
nents by hurling little conical leaden bullets and 
great ragged splinters of iron among solid squares 
of living men, crashing through their skulls and 
inflicting moVe hideous lacerations than inexpe- 
rienced imagination could devise; and, when this 
fails, they would conclude by thrusting pointed steel 
spikes between the ribs and through the stomachs 
of their fellow Christians. 

These remarks are not made in any spirit of 
censure upon our officers, but rather with reference 
to the ill-advised comments of superficial writers at 
home. 

Admiral Plumridge was roundly rated by some of 
the newspapers for burning tar and timber which 
would ere now have been afloat in the shape of 
imperial gun-boats. 

Other officers have not escaped censure for 
arresting the Russian boats on their passage from 
the Swedish coast. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. XIX 

These boats were accustomed to convey chiefly 
salt and colonial produce ; they were manned by serfs, 
who carried on this trade at great risk to them- 
selves, and enormous profit to their masters. 

It was done to a great extent. I have seen them 
in little fleets together at Wisby and Sandhamn ; 
and of course, if such a traffic were permitted, the 
blockade would be a simple absurdity. 

In truth great liberality has very wisely been 
shown by our officei^s in all these minor matters ; 
and, as regards more important measures, if their 
hands are tied, as we are often told, I believe the 
greatest restraint upon them is the fear of irrational 
and unscrupulous animadversion at home. 

It would be well to show that these views are 
mistaken, rather than to rail against them as 
inhuman. 

If they are just, they cannot be inhuman, because 
the object in view is the cessation of war, the pro- 
lific source of human misery. 

Bold men and bold measures are not usually 
cruel ; it is to the weak, the timid, the irresolute, 
that the woes and pains of life are chiefly due. 



XX PBEFACB TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

I cannot conclude these remarks withoat con- 
fessing the surprise and pleasure with which I 
have read many too favourable notices of a work 
which I know to be full of faults — ^written as it 
was for the most part at sea, on board of a little 
jumping cutter, sometimes amid the rough music of 
a roaring breeze, or the crash of artillery — and I 
cannot but express my entire acquiescence in many 
criticisms which I admit to be reasonable and just. 

R. E. H. 

Cambbidoe, 

January Zlst^ 1856. 



LOG OF THE ^^PET.' 



CHAPTER I. 

DEPARTUBE. 
** Fuge littus amatum." , 

On the fourteenth of July, 1854:/the "Pet" 
sailed from Lowestoft for the Baltic. 

She is a very small cutter-yacht, about as long 
as a moderate-sized drawing-room, and scarcely so 
wide as a four-post bed : to judge from her low 
sides, her large sails, and her narrow deck, it could 
scarcely be supposed that she could trust herself 
at sea, or venture to do battle with a gale of wind ; 
and, indeed, I should not now venture to put in 
print the adventures of such a very small and 
insignificant member of the Eoyal Thames Fleet, 
were it not that our cruize took us among scenes 



and circumstances which do not commonly come 
within the scope of a yacht voyage. 

" What ! " exclaimed a passing acquaintance ; 
"you don't mean that you are going to the 
Baltic in that little thing ? You'll be drowned, you 
know." " You'll be caught by the Rooshians," 
suggested another, " and knouted to death." " All 
amateurs found sp}ing about the Bussian waters 
will be hanged," said a third. And experienced old 
navy men and superannuated quay loimgers, shrug- 
ging their shoulders, took up their parable, and 
said, " I remember in the year — ," &c. ; or, " Well, 
Sir, I minds the time when a lot of gents, as it 
might be yourself," &c. &c., came to some untimely 
end. 

However, I had the consolation of knowing that 
these prophetic birds of ill-omen were all pro- 
foundly ignorant of the subject ; for not one sailor 
in a hundred knows anything of small vessels, 
and landsmen of course speak merely from hearsay. 

The only man whose opinion is worth a rush, is 
here and there a smuggler or a fisherman, who well 
knows what a small craft smartly handled will do ; 



DEPARTURE. 8 

but these worthies, besides being coiistitationally 
reserved, entertain a great contempt for gentlemen 
navigators. And, moreover, it is impossible to get 
an honest opinion out of them; they always have 
some left-hand vision of possible moneys or pro- 
bable beer to be extracted out of you by some 
means, and consequently all their ipse dixits must 
be received with an enormous grano salis. 

However, I could see no reason why the seas 
should roll more heavily, or the gales blow more 
violently, in the tideless Baltic than they do in the 
chops of the Channel or the Irish Sea; and as the 
little " Pet " had long carried me in safety round 
our coasts, and had braved many a gale without 
once playing me a scurvy trick, I determined to 
trust in Providence, and go out to see the battle. 

My oldest comrade also, who had fought through 
many a stormy night aboard the little ship, said, 
"Sail;" and a message full of good wishes and 
without a breath of dissuasion from one dear friend, 
came like a word of good omen at the parting hour, 
and we set sail with a fair wind and smooth water 
from Lowestoft roads. 

b2 



4 LOO OP THE ••PET. 

We had shipped two seamen at Southampton. 
My first hand, William Shelley, was a smart, sailor- 
like fellow, who could heave the lead, hand, reef, 
and steer ; the other, Ned Dawson, could not read 
or write ; the compass was a mystery to him, and 
the chart an unknown land ; but he was bold and 
hai-dy : moreover, he had a ready wit, and loved a 
timely joke — an excellent quality at sea. They 
were both clean and quiet fellows, and I thought 
myself very fortunate in my crew; and for their 
part, they were happy and contented enough, 
though all they knew of our destination was, that 
the craft was making seven knots, and her head 
was east by south. 

Our ship measures eight tons, o.m. ; our cabin is 
ten feet long, and fitted with every possible locker 
and cupboard that skill can devise. Bolls of charts, 
a spy-glass, and our knapsacks, decorate the sides ; 
we have a table, a comfortable institution for wash- 
ing ; and some twenty pet volumes are arranged on a 
book-shelf— a great luxury and unfailing resource. 
Besides this, there is a small forecastle for the men. 
Altogether, small as she is, one may live very 



DEPABTURE. 5 

snugly aboard the little " Pet," in tolerable weather ; 
and in gales of wind I fancy some of the big ones 
are not much more comfortable than we. 

These luxuries were shared by a younger brother 
who had never been to sea before, and myself; so 
we were four souls in all : two officers and two men. 

The south wind blew fresh and fair, the sun 
shone upon the sparkling waves, our huge . sails, 
puffed out with the following breeze, tugged away 
at the little craft till the foam came buzzing over 
her bows ; on either quarter a long line of angry 
broken little billows tailed away astern with our 
white foamy wake between them, while far away in 
the west the white Pakefield cliffs and the dark 
Lowestoft hill grew pale and blue in the distance, 
and sank beneath the sea. 

And now we were fairly off. How delightful it 
is to be fairly off, well found, well provisioned, and 
well manned ! 

I confess I scarcely know anything that ap- 
proaches so nearly to happiness as the feeling one 
experiences the first day at sea. The sensation of 
escape is delightful ; the cares and turmoils of the 



6 LOG OP THE "pet." 

shore are lulled in the music of the breeze, the 
land with all its dreary, weary pursuits is astern, 
and the sea is ahead — ^the great, glorious sea, with 
all its adventures, delights, and dangers. 

Our daily life is poetry of the old masculine 
Homeric sort. 

The purple tints of evening, the gray morning 
mist, and the dark rolling seas, are our companions 
and our books. 

But I must apologise for soliloquising, for I well 
know it is a most tedious trick. Besides, I am 
aware that those who go down to the sea in steam- 
boats will laugh at all this, and will talk about sea- 
sickness, uncomfortable motion, a fat stewardess, 
end a smell ot oil — highly unpoetical associations ; 
from which, however, we, in our little white-winged 
ships, are happily exempt. 

It is the peculiar privilege of British seamen that 
wherever they sail they have for their landmarks the 
scenes of British victories. There is scarcely an 
island or promontory in navigable seas that has not 
been witness to some deed of naval daring in which 
England has been victorious; and thus our first land- 



DEPARTURE. 7 

fall was the hill of Camperdown, off which Admiral 
Duncan defeated De Winter and captured nine of 
his line-of-battle ships and a brace of frigates. 

Here, at 10 p.m., we got a cast of the lead in 
fourteen fathoms ; a depth that told us that the shore 
was quite near enough for safety. The night now 
looked dirty, and both wind and sea were rising, so 
I took the topsail off her, shifted jibs, hauled down 
two reefs, jibed, and steered NN.E. for the night. 

The coast of Friesland from Texel to the Jahde is 
beset by low sandy islands separated by narrow 
channels, and fringed with dangerous reefs running 
out far to seaward. They are, however, well lighted, 
and the shoals are carefully buoyed, so that in the 
clear summer nights a good log and a bright look- 
out will keep one out of harm's way. But a more 
uninteresting coast can scarcely be imagined ; and 
great was our disappointment when, soon after 
making Ylieland, the strong fair wind deserted us, 
and a light air from the northward and eastward 
sprung up and blew right in our teeth. 

It is unnecessary to tell how we worked our 
weary way to windward. 



8 

Wanger Oog, Langer Oog, Schiermonnig Oog are 
places which now have little interest for any one ; 
men have long since forgotten how the boats of the 
"Quebec," threading these islands, entered the 
Wadden and boarded four French gun-boats in 
open day. Who cares now to hear how Lieutenant 
Blyth, wounded in tlie shoulder, was frightfully 
burned by an explosion and blown into the sea ; or 
how Mr. Muggeridge of the marines, having shot 
one soldier who grappled with him, was thrust 
through the throat with a bayonet and forced over- 
board ; while Lieutenant Slouth, with three grape- 
shot through the leg and thigh, died of his wounds ? 
and yet the survivors took the gun-boats and towed 
them off in triumph. All these things are forgotten, 
and the faithful maidens who wept so bitterly for 
their true lovers slain at Camperdown and theHelder, 
have long since sleptwithotherhusbands in the grave. 

On approaching the mouths of the Elbe the sea 
became more lively. Flights of British colliers, 
with their dusky wings wide spread, hastened away 
to their smoky homes. Old Dutch galliots, sleepy, 
prudent, and respectable, drifted contentedly to 



DEPARTURE. 9 

leeward, the good Yrow at the hehn atoning for 
the scantiness of the ship's drapery hy the more 
ample expanse of her own. 

Passenger steamboats came buzzing past us, 
slowly rolling on the swell, while pale faces and 
crumpled bonnets projected dismally, like living 
gurgoyles, from their sides; and here and there 
a smart meretricious pilot-boat hung out her most 
flaunting colours, and dodged about among all craft 
who looked strange and inexperienced. At last 
Heligoland hove in sight; a rocky dependency of 
the British crown, which was taken from the Danes, 
and has ever since been retained. It has no 
harbour, but two roadsteads, neither of which 
seems very safe : the island is high and conspi- 
cuous, and has an excellent light. The name of 
Heligoland, contrary to the etymology which its 
pronunciation by seamen would imply, signifies the 
Holy Land. It is an admirable land-faU for ships 
bound into the Elbe, and the pilots are said to be 
daring and skilful seamen. The tide here runs all 
round the compass, and the shoals project many 
miles into the sea; and, in spite of its excellent 



10 LOO OP THE "pet." 

system of buoys and lights, Heligoland Bay bids 
fiEur to be an awkward berth for any unhappy 
stranger in a blowing January night. 

On Tuesday the 18th, by daybreak, we had at 
length reached the mouth of the Eider; a river 
which, with the aid of a canal, cuts off the peninsula 
of Jutland and leads straight to the Baltic. 

The entrance of the Eider is narrow and difficult, 
and the floating light or flre ship, as the Danes call 
it, is rather a dull affair. 

Here it is usual to take a pilot, and here it is also 
usual for the pilot's boat, a heavy lump of a thing, 
to come stem on into the sides of any vessel whom 
they may honour with a visit. I suppose it is also 
usual for the pilot to be saluted accordingly with a 
few of those vigorous monosyllables which serve to 
point the morals and adorn the tales of the British 
mariner : in our case the pilot evidently considered 
them a customary tribute of respect, and civilly 
touched his hat in acknowledgment of the com- 
pliment. 

He was the best pilot that we met with in our 
cruise. Instead of taking the helm himself, he kept 



DEPARTURE. 11 

a sharp look out for his marks, and worked her to 
windward over the ebb, making a long leg and a 
short one, and exclaiming " Boot, boot," every time 
we tacked ; to the amusement of our men and the 
admiration of all the Dutch dogger-looking sloops 
that we passed, who yelled out vociferous greetings 
in Platt-Deutsch, with many strange questions 
about the Lustktttter and the Englishman. 

At length the pilot shoved us hard and fast 
ashore, and there we lay for two hours, about sixty 
yards from the sandy beach ; on which lay a huge 
• unwieldy seal sunning himself in peace, and bearing 
so strong a resemblance to a respectable but corpu- 
lent grocer now no more, that it was^ impossible 
for any one who knew that lamented tradesman to 
look at the monster without laughing. 

Meanwhile, all hands were employed in painting, 
and repairing rigging, till the tide came, and bring- 
ing with it a fine fair wind, sent us flying up the 
narrow passage which leads to Tonning. 

" The English are a great nation," said the pilot. 
" I have seen many Englishmen, and I have seen 
Mr. Pitt, the great Mr. Pitt." 



12 

" The deuce you have ! He has been dead these 
fifty years." 

" On the contrary, I did pilot his yacht up to 
Tonning, and he is now constructing a railroad to 
Flensburg. He is a great man." 

With such amusing conversation, in a Dano- 
German dialect, our worthy pilot beguiled the time. 

The country lies very low, and the river rises occa- 
sionally far above the level of the meadows, which 
are protected by a high bank ; this intercepts the 
view, and the disappointed voyager is debarred from 
all prospect except an occasional windmill, or a 
pair of horns, a broad-brimmed hat, or now and 
then a brace of round, wide-open eyes, and a good- 
humoured grin, set in a white feminine cap, peering 
over the bank. 



CHAPTER II. 

, INLAND NAVIGATION. 

** By thirty hills I huny down, 
Or slip between the ridges ; 
By twenty thorps, a little town, 
And half a hundred bridges." 

Aebived at Tonning, we let go our anchor, and 
were honoured with a visit from a custom-house 
official in a green uniform, who discharged his 
duty hy spitting on the cabin carpet, and boasting 
of his intimacy with the renowned " Mistair Pitt," 
the greatest of living men, who was making a rail- 
road to Flensburg. 

The town is Dutch in its aspect, but not so clean; 
it possesses a large church of debased architecture, 
a small square and pleasure ground, delightfully 
shaded by thick, cool trees ; and it is garrisoned by 
a few Danish soldiers, whom the good citizens 
regard with little favour. They assert that they are 



14 LOG OF THE " PET." 

Germans, body and soul, and that the Dane has 
no business there. 

On entering a grocer's shop, an Englishman is 
invited into the parlour, and regaled with a cigar, 
while the proprietor pours out schnaps and civi- 
lities, sings the praises of Mr. Pitt (Anglicd, Peto), 
and concludes the interview with a friendly shake 
of the hand, and, perhaps, an invitation to a 
soiree. 

The great source of prosperity to the place is the 
trade in cattle, from the fertile plains of Jutland to 
the beef-consuming shores of Britain. 

The times are changed since the days when the 
hungry heroes Hengist and Horsa sailed from 
Tonning, with tlieir fair sister Bowena and their 
foul Teutonic warriors, to fight the battles of the 
unwarlike Britons, and to eat their beeves and 
swine. Now -a -days,. "Mistair Pitt" and his 
navvies have invaded the shores of the Anglo- 
Saxon with pick and shovel, and the plains which 
once sent us Saxons, now supply us with beasts. 

The men of Jutland were a great nation in the 
days of their good king Lothbrock, or Leather- 



INLAND NAVIGATIOX. 15 

breeches ; for so his name importeth. They were 
sturdy tosspots and good trenchermen, as we learn 
from many sources, but especially from their 
notioils of a future state after death. The good, 
they supposed, were transported by the goddess 
Dyser to Woden's Hall, where they drank ale with 
that deity out of their enemies' skulls. 

" We have stood true to Snick and Snee, 
And now I laugh to think 
In Woden^s hall there benches be 
Where we may sit and drink." 

On the other hand, their place of punishment was 
intrusted to a goddess named Hel. Her palace is 
called Elund, her dishes Hunger, and her knife 
Want. Her serving-man's name was Slowback, and 
her serving-maid Sanglot, which signifies Lazybones 
or Slut. In this place of torment the poor ghosts 
did remain, their dishes shining for lack of victual, 
and their cups ofttimes but scantily served with 
ale, and that too of an ill sort. 

But it will not do to linger in these early stages 
of our cruize. 

We sailed from Tonning about 1 p.m., having 
engaged a royal pilot to Eendsburg, whose hire, for 



16 

a distance of seventy mUes, was about seven shillings 
English. 

The wind continued adverse, and the Eider here 
is scarce a hundred yards across, and when the ebb 
came, we had a long tedious task to work her up a 
reach of half a mile, where tlie wind was dead on 
end. The pilot was a clumsy fellow, and kept her 
constantly in irons, jamming the helm hard a- 
weather, and laying the blame on the wind. At last 
I made him give up the helm, and the wind improved 
immediately; in a few minutes the adverse reach 
was passed, and we were foaming along with a 
leading wind for ten miles, till we came to another 
bend. 

The country continues fertile, ^at, and froggy. 
No com is grown, but the crops of grass are wonder- 
ful. Storks, herons, and ducks are abundant. 

The country people were carrying their hay, and 
the quaint German wagons, drawn sometimes by 
cows, and sometimes by little slight Holstein horses, 
were reeling along the roads. The high tottering 
loads were built and packed with singular neatness ; 
and to ballast the whole and give it steadiness, a 



INLAND NAVIGATION. 17 

little bunch of peasant girls was stowed away on the 
top, who peeped demurely £rom under their broad- 
brimmed hats, and exchanged laughing greetings 
with the Englishmen. 

Meanwlule, the sun was getting low; the wind 
had dropped, and the " Pet *' came drifting up with 
the tide, the sailors lolling on the deck, and sing- 
ing— 

** How gaily goes the ship 
When the wind blows free." 

We sat on the bank and smoked the pipe of con- 
templation, planning future voyages and construct- 
ing castles in the air, till sunset recalled us to sad 
reality in the shape of supper. 

The next day was a repetition of the same tale. 
We turned to windward for more than thiii;y miles 
of a river never more than fifty yards in width, and 
at last, just as the towers of Eendsburg were begin- 
ning to loom high above the banks, our pilot brought 
us to a full stop, by running the " Pet " hard and fast 
upon the mud. Finding it impossible to heave her 
off, we left the ship and walked to Eendsburg, leaving 
the pilot and the men to bring her up with the 
flood. 



18 LOO OP THE "pet." 

Poor pilot, I am afraid he had a hard time of it. 
The men had given him a variety of nick-names, 
among which Frosty-nose and Dusty-mug were the 
most complimentary; and now that he had so 
elumsily shoved us ashore, I did not feel bound to 
interfere with the fun they made of him. 

We had a walk of five or six miles, which, after 
the long confinement to the narrow limits of the 
" Pet's " deck, was pleasant enough. The country 
here rises considerably above the level of the 
marshes, and has a light sandy soil, unfit for wheat, 
but producing rye, barley, and buckwheat in con- 
siderable quantities ; but it is in the low irrigated 
marshes that the wealth of the land consists. 

The peasants* houses are capital, roomy, and 
comfortable abodes, with three or four large rooms 
on the ground floor; and the excellence of the 
brick-work, both in the houses and farm-buildings, 
is very remarkable. The people whom we met 
were civil and talkative, speaking very respectable 
German, and looking thorough Germans in face, 
figure, and demeanour. 

On our arrival at Eendsburg we found a large and 



INLAND NAVIGATION. 19 

very strongly fortified town, with a strong garrison, 
fine large squares, and beautiful shady grounds. 

Here we stayed a day to rest, and explore the 
place ; but with the exception of the fortifications, 
we found little of interest. The Danish army has 
abandoned the old red uniform, which was con- 
sidered too conspicuous in the late wars. They are 
tall men as compared with other continental troops ; 
but they had one and all a x>€culiar straddling con- 
figuration of their nether limbs, which made our 
sailors compare them to a lot of blacksmith's tongs* 

They appeared very quiet, well-behaved fellows, 
and did not seem to suffer at all from the devout 
hatred with which the citizens regard them. 

Here I gave our fellows a good dinner ashore, 
after the manners and customs of the natives; which 
they approved of highly, except the beer: after 
which, having engaged a heavy boat, manned by an 
elderly woman, to tow us through the lock, we 
hauled out at sunset, and passed into the old Eider, 
which here resembles a lake, and adds much to the 
beauty of the town. 

Starting the next morning at five, we lasily 

o2 



20 LOG OF THE " PET." 

reached the sea by sunset, although we were much 
delayed and bothered in towing along the banks of 
the river. 

The water is about a mile wide, and the banks 
are irregular with deep little bays and projecting 
headlands, and beset with weeds. It is necessary 
here to have a pilot, besides the man who rides ^he 
towing horse. Our cavalier put us ashore three or 
four times : once we had to run out the best bower 
and bouse her down to it by the main halyards 
before she would go. Another time, while she was 
aground, tw<> Dutch vessels came in the opposite 
direction. The louts who rode the horses, instead 
of going under our rope passed over it, and an 
awful scene of confusion occurred. 

I was busy with one of the hands in the boat 
weighing our anchor, when the Dutchman*s rope 
having passed under the " Pet's " keel, came sweep- 
ing with fearful speed over the water, caught the 
boat under the quarter, and sent her flying across the 
lake at a pace to which she was entirely unaccus- 
tomed ; then suddenly flying up, it struck me under 
the chin and sent me overboard with a salmon's leap. 



INLAND NAVIGATION. 21 

On recovering our position on board the " Pet," 
which was now alongside the Dutchman, tlie com- 
pliments usual among sailors were exchanged, and 
we proceeded on our way. The two other craft 
got a sheer which they could not counteract, and 
went ashore hard and fast. 

Meanwhile I blew myself dry by taking a spell 
on horseback ; for the lout could not comprehend 
that with a light and sharp vessel it was necessary 
to maintain a greater speed, in order to keep the 
line out of water. The consequence was, we had 
always two or three hundred weight of weeds on the 
line, which dragged astern and pulled the " Pet " 
ashore in spite of the helm. After this change we got 
on swimmingly. The German was a thorough lub- 
ber ; he disliked biscuits, and would not touch grog. 

The last few miles of the canal approach the 
actual abode of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers : the 
water is here shaded by beautiful trees, and the 
country is very fine. On either side are grassy 
hills, with clumps of timber, among which repose 
good substantial gentlemen's houses, just like dear 
old Devonshire. 



22 LOG OP THE "PET. 

The approach to the Baltic is also very beautiful : 
as in the inside of the Solent, trees grow close to 
the water's edge, and send their dark shadows far 
over the sea : English-looking houses peep out 
between the timber, and oh for the pen of George 
Bobins, now no more, that I might do justice to 
their charms ! 

We were delighted with our first peep at the 
Baltic, and ran merrily up to Kiel, where we let 
go our anchor just as the gentle sea breeze folded 
its wings and went peacefully to sleep. 

The next morning, Sunday, 23rd, was intensely 
hot ; we rigged an awning, and breakfasted on deck, 
while admiring inhabitants cruised round us in 
their boats and amused us with their remarks. 

" Whence come the gentlemen, if I may inquire ? " 
^ " From London ! " 

" This will be an English gun-boat, is it not so ? " 
continued the inquirer. 

" No, she is a yacht." 

" Is that possible ? Heaven sapperment, once 
more ! Doubtless it is a screw steamer, for I see no 
wheels." 



INLAND NATIGATION. 23 

** No, it is a sailing yacht.*' 

'* Adieu, memeHenen.** " Good monung, gentle* 
men.'* 

Hats were elevated, and the rowers departed ; bat 
soon letomed, and with some hesitation ventured 
to inqabe whether the great Mr. Pitt were on 
board. 

I have little to say about Kiel. It is a great, 
stupid, hot German place. The walls were placarded 
with announcements of a celebrated danseme who 
was to perform at the Opera ; a lady capable, it was 
stated, of taking the most enormous jumps. We 
did not stay to witness her performances. 



CHAPTER ni. 

THE BALTIC. 

** Yon seiner Herrin tr&umt der See^ 
Sie k&me bald ge&hren, 
Und kr&ufielnd spielt der Finger Sdmee 
In seinen schimmemden Haaren.** 

It was pleasant sailing down Kiel Bay with 
smooth water and a light breeze. The deep and 
narrow bay afforded us a good view of either shore, 
where a village, a nest of fishing-boats, or a wagon 
full of smart holiday folk, from time to time 
attracted our attention. 

The prettiest scene was a group of some twenty 
village gills, whose clear merry voices we heard long 
before we could distinguish their dark shapeless 
dresses from the rocks among which* they nestled. 
After a time a louder chorus of laughs attracted our 
attention, and, by Ovid and all his metamorphoses ! 
the dark shapeless robes had vanished, and, in their 



THE BALTIC. 25 

stead, twenty white glistening biped forms were seen 
jumping, splashing, and tumbling in the shallow 
waves, while volleys of soprano screams and peals of 
feminine laughter came trilling over the sea. 

The distance was too great to destroy the illusion 
by betraying the faults and blemishes from which I 
suppose even maiden forms are not exempt, and 
to our eyes they all looked white and comely as 
Aphrodite rising from the sea. 

Soon, however, an enemy got into the camp ; for 
we observed two village lads, who had skulked un- 
perceived from their own territory, and had now 
reached the spot where the girls had left their 
dresses, and there they were in high glee tricking 
themselves out in caps and petticoats. 

On a sudden, a loud scream proclaimed that the 
wolf was in the fold. Without a moment's hesitation 
the girls hastened to the charge; one snatched a 
petticoat and slipped it over her dripping locks, 
another was fain to content herself with a high- 
crowned hat ; and a third, in the exigency of the case, 
could lay hands on nothing more apposite than a 
scarlet stocking and a wooden shoe : in a word, with 



26 

such defensive armour as they could snatch, they 
rushed upon the foe and fairly beat them off, under 
cover of such an artillery of laughs, squeaks, and 
general vociferation, as it has seldom been my lot 
to hear. 

But we were now too distant to observe their 
movements with precision, so we must leave them 
to dry their' curls and settle their disputes while we 
proceed with our voyage. 

The course down Kiel Bay is north-east, and 
there are three lights and a red beacon on the port 
hand. There are also several little booms, which 
appear to be stuck in the ground; but I believe 
they are afloat in five fathom? water, and I presume 
they mark the fair-way on either hand. 

Having reached the third light, we ran about six 
miles east by north, and having now got a good 
offing and a fine breeze, we set our course east by 
south to go north of Femeren island. 

Daybreak found us off Femeren; a smart English 
schooner, a foreign brig, and two Dutch schuyts in 
company. 

Here the wind fell, the heat grew intense, Shelley 



THE BALTIC. il7 

fell sick, and we lay helpless all the day in a calm 
reeking sea of vermicelli soup.* 

From time to time a catspaw would darken the 
sea, and our hopes would be raised by the sight of 
one of the vessels in company scudding along for a 
moment with a white feather in her mouth ; but the 
breeze never held, the sails flapped lazily, the reef- 
points chattered, the boom swung from side to side, 
the pitch boiled out of the seams of the deck, and 
the whole craft lay scorched and sun-struck in the 
overpowering heat. 

It was impossible to stand to the helm more than 
a few minutes, and unwilling as we were to lose a 
yard of our course, it was positively necessary to 
take refuge under the shade of the sails. We 
drowned the deck with water, we rigged an awning, 
we jumped overboard and swam leisurely in the cool 
shadow of the vessel, and poor Shelley grew worse 
every hour, protesting that he had never known 
it hotter in the West Indies. 

"* The Baltic water in many parts is fiill of a white substance which 
entirely alters the appearance of the sorfiEM^, and at a little distance 
frequently has a most alarming resemblance to shoal patches. The 
sailon call it <' Fishes' Wittles." 



28 LOG OP THE "pet/* 

He now told me, wliat should not have been con- 
cealed from me at first, that when I shipped him he 
had just been discharged, not cured, £rom hospital, 
where he had been' for a yellow fever which had 
nearly killed him on his passage home. 

The heat had now brought on a relapse. I 
physicked him and gave him my berth in the cabin ; 
but he looked very ill, and I did not at all like the 
aspect of affairs. 

At length, just as the sun was setting, an easterly 
breeze sprung up, and I determined to make the 
best of my way to Copenhagen, where I hoped to 
get good advice for my sick man. The wind was 
adverse, but I kept sail on her, and worked her all 
night as if we were in a match, keeping the lead 
going ; for the wind was puffy and uncertain, and it 
was impossible to steer a course. 

At daybreak a fresh breeze from the same quarter 
brought me to double-reefed mainsail, and knocked 
up a sea off Moen Island. Here the sick man 
showed on deck for a few minutes at breakfast-time 
and gave us hopes ; but ^le wind went down as the 
sun got up, it grew hot again, and poor Shelley 



THE BALTIC. 29 

relapsed into his former weakness and despondency. 
Towards evening we fell in with an enormous fleet 
of merchantmen working up for the Sound, and a 
squadron of men-of-war was made out at anchor in 
Kioge Bay. 

But for the gloom which poor Shelley's illness 
cast over the ship, this would have been a very 
interesting day. Moen Cliff is the finest headland 
I ever saw ; perfectly abrupt and glistening white — 
like Beachy — but much higher, and richly adorned 
by shrubs and trees, which nestle in the crevices. 

Soon after daylight, the " Pet " was at anchor off 
Copenhagen, and I was rowing off to H.M.S. 
" Bulldog," then lying in the Roads, where I hoped 
to obtain medical advice for my sick man. 

The "Bulldog's" people were busy coaling. A 
collier brig lay alongside, appearing a mere boat by 
the side of the steam-sloop, and the crew, dressed in 
loose canvas slops, tramped merrily along the deck 
witli the end of a rope, by means of which the 
coals were hoisted in. 

A fiddler was hard at work squeaking out tlie 
cheery notes of "Nancy Dawson" and other ditties 



80 

beloved by seamen, and the men in high spirits 
shuffled along in time, literally making fun out of 
coal bags. 

Mr. Ruby, the surgeon, very kindly came with me 
to the " Pet," and at once decided that poor Shelley, 
must go to the hospital ; where soon afterwards he 
was received. 

I cannot speak too favourably of Copenhagen 
hospital for cleanliness, comfort, and good medical 
treatment : it is admirable. The expenses are very 
moderate, and English seamen seem to be par- 
ticularly favoured; for at one o'clock I found Shelley 
dining on fresh fish, soup, and potatoes ; and as he 
was a married man, and a well-mannered steady 
fellow, the youngest and best-looking nurse in the 
hospital was assigned to him. After dinner I wrote 
a letter to his wife, and when I handed it to him to 
read, I could see the poor fellow press a kiss upon 
the paper which was so soon to be in the hands of 
her whom it seemed probable he would never see 
again. Later in the evening he had borrowed 
Pickwick from a marine, and seemed cheerful and 
comfortable. 



THE BALTIC. 31 

Copenhagen is a fine handsome town, much larger 
than its appearance from the sea would lead one to 
suppose. The streets are wide and handsome, and 
there is one square which in point of space equals 
any in London or Paris. Among the stereotyped 
sights which an unfortunate stranger is expected to 
visit, are two palaces ; one in a garden, a hideous 
bolt-upright thing by Inigo Jones, which it is con- 
sidered necessary to admire ; the other an enormous 
barrack, big enough for " all the king's horses and 
all the king's men." 

The architecture of Copenhagen is of the base 
Benaissance school, and the chief curiosity in this 
way is the new Com Exchange, over which is a spire 
formed by the intertwined tails of three dragons or 
crocodiles, the heads of which, looking downwards, 
grin horribly upon all beholders : the effect of the 
device is quaint and grotesque. The Thorwaldsen 
Museum is described in all the guide-books : a 
stranger will probably be disappointed in it ; the 
casts are too rough to give one an adequate idea of 
the originals. 

The gem of Copenhagen is Thorwaldsen's Christ, 



32 LOG OP THE "pet." 

in the Frauenkircbe. The centre of a group of 
figures is a full-length statue of our Saviour ; an 
angel kneeling before him holds a sea-shell: this 
is the font : on either side are ranged the Apostles. 
Our Saviour's figure is full of gentleness and 
dignity : kind, majestic, beautiful. The inscription 
at the base of the statue is " Kommer til mig : " 
" Come imto me." 

Among the other lions of the place is a square 
tower of Mediaeval architecture, which is mounted 
by a spiral macadamized road, by which Peter the 
Great is said to have driven four horses up die 
building. The top of this edifice is selected 
singularly enough for the position of the University 
Library, The road to learning is always steep and 
arduous, but at no capital can letters be said 
to occupy a higher position than they do at 
Copenhagen. 

The Danes are very English in manner and 
appearance. There is a very fair amount of business 
and bustle in the streets, well-appointed carts and 
wagons drive rapidly about, and at every town one 
meets a workman or tradesman whose configuration 



THE BALTIC. 39 

of nose, whisker, and cheekbone, is English every 
whit. Or if one stxolls about the gardens, or takes 
an excursion to Tivoli, the Yauxhall of Copenhagen, 
one sees plainly enough from what source the iall 
slight figures, and the bright eyes and complexions 
of our English girls are derived. 

Often when travelling in Germany I have looked 
in vain among the fiat-sided, broad-footed, wide- 
faced, low-caste natives, for some trace of kindred 
race and origin with ourselves ; but in Denmark you 
are constantly encountered by groups who would 
pass muster anywhere for the Anderson girls or the 
Johnsons, and upon inquiry they will probably prove 
to be the Johannsen girls or the Andersens. Indeed, 
we have no reason to be ashamed of our Danish 
cousins : they are a bold energetic race, and if we 
have -given them unhappily little cause to love us, 
they on the other hand have given us every reason 
to respect them. 

I had but little opportunity of forming acquaint- 
ance with the natives ; but the shopkeepers, bankers, 
and ofiBcial persons with whom a stranger comes in 
contact, are straightforward well-mannered men, 



84 LOG OP THE "pet." 

with much of that independent bearing which our 
continental friends are wont to impute to insular 
arrogance. 

Besides this, it must be confessed that the Danes 
appear to share with ourselves that peculiar pro- 
pensity for washing their hands and faces — 
doubtless an absurd and insular prejudice — from 
which our continental neighbours, we must do them 
the justice to say, are generally exempt. 

Ladies' kidgloves, boots and shoes, ornamental 
porcelain, Parian statuettes, and cherry brandy, are 
the things which a yacht would do well to lay in at 
Copenhagen: they are excellent. Wine and pro- 
visions are also good and cheap ; but cordage and 
ship-stores are as dear as at home, and not so 
good. 

The approach to Copenhagen from the Baltic side 
should not be attempted without a pilot, except 
under very favourable circumstances. It is very 
difficult to make out the little slender beacons which 
are used in many places instead of buoys, and vessels 
often take the ground. The pilotage from Drago 
Light depends upon the vessel's draught of water, at 



THE BALTIC. 85 

the rate of half-a-crown a foot, and they have capital 
fore and aft boats always knockmg about on the look- 
out for a job. As we were stealing up close hauled 
at early morning on our approach to Copenhagen, 
our pilot was amusing me by extolling the perform- 
ances of a new boat of unrivalled speed which had 
lately been built on a choice model, and attached to 
the Light ship for pilot service. " She sail by we 
like daty* said he, drawing one horny paw rapidly 
past the other. 

Presently a taunt white -pointed topsail came 
stealing out from the dark shadow of the land. 

" What craft's that, pilot ? " 

"Datis de new pilot-boat," answered our Palinurus. 
" Now you sail see her go." Here a pause ensued, 
during which the pilot became more and more 
fidgety, till at last he sung out " De pilot-boat do 
drop astarn, by Gott ! " And so she did ; but they 
are fine powerful boats notwithstanding. 



D 2 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE VOYAGE. 

^* Who our joys or cares could number ? 

Fitfiil as the breeies blow, 
From wildest strife to softest slumber, 

Our pulses, tides would ebb and flow.** 

Friday, July 28«A. 
We saUed from Copenhagen in a heavy thunder 
squall, having shipped a Danish lad named Peter 
in poor Shelley's place (a very sorry exchange). In 
working out, a heavy shower and gust of wind came 
on, causing us to send down the balloon topsail in 
stays. It was done tolerably smartly. We then 
passed through the Danish fleet, consisting of two 
steamers, two brigs, one corvette, and four frigates. 
We went xmder the lee of the Holger Danske, 
Thetis, Galatea, and Bellona, dipping our colours 
as we passed : the oflScers crowded at the gangway 
and took off their hats in acknowledgment ; and all 
hands were out on the bulwarks, staring at the 



THE VOYAGE. 87 

smallest craft that had ever flown the blue ensign 
in Copenhagen Boads. 

With a fine northerly breeze we ran through the 
grounds to five miles south of the Drago Light' 
when the wind failed us and a thick fog came on ; 
whereupon the little "Pet" dropped her anchor, 
folded her wings, and went to sleep. 

It produces a strange effect to lie at anchor on a 
still summer evening during a thick fog. 

Fog is a great conductor of sound, and frequently 
strange voices are borne far along the waters, from 
unseen vessels at anchor or drifting in the calm. 

A German vessel may be known by the beautiful 
national melodies which the crew sing in harmony, 
a Dutchman by the clatter of wooden shoes, a 
Frenchman by vociferous chatteration, and a ship 
that sails from our own dear native land may be 
recognised by our national curses and bad language 
in general. 

A number of vessels were anchored in our neigh- 
bourhood, and we were comparing the various 
characteristic sounds which were wafted across the 
waves, and wondeiing what peculiar idiosyncrasy it 



88 

can be that fills the British mariner's mouth with 
curses and sends him swearing and Yitui>erating to 
every comer of the globe, when the bellowing of 
some great noisy ruffian of a steamer was heard, 
then, as at the roaring of a huge lion, the cries of all 
minor beasts were hushed in silence, and soon the 
great monster rushed by, leaving us all happy 
enough that she had passed us unscathed in her 
rapid and reckless course. 

" Please, captain, sopper is reddy ! " exclaimed 
Peter the Dane. 

"Well, Peter, what have you got for supper ? " 
" I have got som kofifees, captain, and a bit off 
a buU." 

"All right, Peter : that will do very nicely." 
At early dawn we weighed with a pleasant breeze 
from the eastward, which gradually drew round by 
the north, and settled at length into a fine steady 
west wind, giving us smooth water and a flowing 
sheet. Thus we rounded Faltsboro' floating light 
and shaped a course along the Swedish shore for 
the island of Bomholm. 
We were off Gottesberg Biff, or the Beef of God's 



THE TOTAGE. 89 

Hill, which the British mariner has transposed 
into all the charts and sailing directions by the 
name of Gooseberry Beef, when the look-out snng 
out " Breakers a-head ! " Now this was impossible, 
80 all eyes and glasses were soon directed at the 
white glistening objects which were now plainly 
visible about half-a-mile a-head, while Ned, who was 
a Southampton man and a gunner, jumped up aloft 
and reported — " They be all bvds^ Sir, and I 'spects 
they're gulls." By this time the glass had made 
them out, and I plainly saw that there were fifty of 
them at least, and nothing less than swans every one. 
If a Bussian frigate had hove in sight, a greater 
excitement could not have been produced on board 
the " Pet.*' We had no gun of any kind on board 
(I had purposely abstained from bringing guns or 
fishing-rods, as they are often great temptations to 
delay), and loud and deep were the lamentations 
uttered by all hands, until it became apparent that 
the swans were moulting ; for those that rose from 
the water flew heavily and soon dropped, while 
many, unable to make a fly of it at all, topped their 
booms, up helm, and scudded away to leeward. 



40 LOG OP THE "pet/' 

We picked out a group of three, and bearing straight 
down upon them, I dropped Ned astern in the dingy 
with strict orders not to cast off till we had fairly 
sailed down the chase. We were soon within hail 
of the enemy, who very judiciously separated and 
made sail upon different tacks ; Ned, half mad with 
excitement, here cast off and went in chase of one 
to windward, while I with the " Pet " continued to 
follow the bird that was scudding away before the 
wind. . 

The noble bird a-head paddled away at a speed 
which appeared incredible, and sustained his efforts 
with wonderful pluck ; but the breeze freshened and 
our speed was too great for him. We heard him 
pant and blow as we approached nearer, we saw 
.the poor fellow slew his head from side to side to 
try if escape in either direction were possible, but 
the slightest deviation in his course was met by a 
corresponding movement on the part of his relentless 
pursuer, and he was compelled to resume his own 
hopeless efforts to outstrip us in fair running : twice, 
with a desperate effort^ he extended his wings, and 
with loud cries flapped rapidly a few yards a-head ; 



THE VOYAGE. 41 

but these straggles only exhausted him, and at 
length, when actually under our stem, he drooped 
his head, relaxed his exertions, and gave up ; now, 
however, fortune befriended him, our boat was far 
ftway, our boat-hook would not reach him, and in a 
moment the '^ Pet " had shot past her prey and left 
him in possession of the weather gauge twenty yards 
astern. It was a complete reprieve, and more than 
that, it showed plainly that without a boat we could 
scarcely succeed, so we worked up again to the scene 
of action, where Ned, in his dingy, was engaged 
in an unequal struggle with another splendid 
swan. 

^Now, however, our better tactics were rewarded 
with complete success, and we soon got a noble full- 
grown hooper on board. The wind and sea were 
now getting up, and the rest of the flock had 
scattered in all directions, so we abandoned the 
pursuit, well satisfied with our partial victory. This 
fortunate capture provided all hands with fresh 
meat for three days, and we all agreed that the 
best dinner we had during the whole cruise was 
that which we enjoyed at the expense of our 



42 LOO OP THE "pet." 

gallant enemy the hooper. If we had had two guns 
with us, I am sure we might have bagged half the 
fleet. This is evidently one of their favourite 
haunts, for on our return in September we fell in 
with several; but they were then in fall feather 
and strong on the wing. 

To make up for this delay we set the balloon 
jib, and passing swiftly along the Swedish coast 
by the city of Ystad, conspicuous by its four 
windmills and its harbour, we made the high land 
of Bomholn. It is related that at the coronation of 
Charles XII. of Sweden by the archbishop at Ystad, 
his grace held the crown over the head of the king, 
saying, " God has given, and God may take away." 
WhereupQu the irascible prince snatched the crown 
from the archbishop, and placing it firmly on his own 
head, exclaimed, " Dieu me Ta donne, le diable ne 
Temportera pas." The anecdote is related some- 
what diBFerenfly in Voltaire* 

Bomholm, the last of the Danish islands, lies 
just out of sight of the Swedish shore, and it is 
said that there is a dangerous rock midway in the 
passage ; for this reason vessels usually keep close 



THE VOYAGE. 48 

to the island, on which a high and brilliant light 
is shown. We passed at midnight with a fresh- 
ening breeze and dark threatening sky; but the 
sun, who' in these regions takes but a short watch 
below, rose bright and fair, and for a long summer 
day we rolled lazily over the dreamy billows, our 
sails sleeping tranquilly in the gentle embrace 
of the west wind. 

This was a grand gourmand day with us. Swan 
k la biftek, swan a la rosbif, potage de cygne, and 
cygne k la mode, constituted our bill of fare ; and 
capital fare it was, in the opinion of all hands. 

The long narrow island named Oeland, and 
the calm streaky waves that rolled between it and 
Gottland, were passed without any incident, except 
that at midnight we fell in with a large black- 
looking cutter hove to. On our approach, how- 
ever, she filled and gave chase, but as we con- 
tinued our course, and she quickly dropped astern, 
I have no account to give of her. 

All this time we had never fallen in with a 
cruiser, either French or English, and we could 
not but think that an enterprising enemy, well 



44 LOO OF THE "pet. 

acquainted with the localities, might have done 
great damage among the merchantmen which 
covered the sea, and got under cover of some 
neutral roadstead before our cruisers could catch 
him. 

On the 1st of August we entered the Swedish 
harbour of Slitehamn, in the island of Gottland, 
a place which is puffed and applauded in the 
Seaman's Guide as if it were a kind of marine 
Eutopia. It is, however, in reality a most dreary, 
desolate place, where nothing is to be got for 
money, and still less for love. The bay is a noble 
basin, but the entrance is beset with reefs, and so 
little trouble has been taken to mark them, that 
it would be dangerous to nm in without a pilot ; 
and in a breeze of wind the sea would be too heavy 
for a pilot to get off. 

We were received on our arrival first by a pilot, 
who would not, however, touch us or our vessel: 
secondly, by a quarantine officer, armed with a 
16-foot forceps, wherewith he handed us a black 
flag, and a paper for signature. Thirdly, by the 
whole male population, consisting of a doctor, a 



THE YOYAGE. 45 

merchant, the master of a stranded yessel, and a 
mariner from the same. Thus reinforced we were 
invited to get under way, and run into port under 
charge of the pilot. This manoeuvre that func- 
tionary intended to perform by running the " Pet " 
hard and fast ashore ; but seeing his intention, we 
managed to get sail off her and bring her up by 
the hair of her head, with the shore some ten 
yards to leeward and the rocks some four inches 
under the keel. 

Utterly disgusted at the black and disconsolate 
place iato which the flaming reports in the 
Seaman's Guide had tempted us, and yet unwilling 
to leave till we had completed some trifling repairs, 
we strolled out in the evening, and wandered about 
till chance led us to a beautiful little naval encamp- 
ment, where the crews of three Swedish gun-boats 
with their officers were fixed for summer quar- 
ters. The Swedish seamen are excellent, fine, 
sturdy, healthy fellows, very like English ; but, I 
must confess it, cleaner and better clad.* The 
officers are gentleman-like, well-educated men; 
* The gan-boat seamen are the ilite of the Swedish nayy. 



46 LOG OP THE "pet." 

and as many of them have served in our own 
navy, they entirely sympathise with us^ and lose 
no opportunity to show us civility and kindness. 
As regards their gun-boats I must speak with 
very faint praise. It is the custom in newspapers 
to write at random about the very important 
services they might render us in the present war ; 
I must beg leave to differ from this opinion in 
toto. The Swedish gun-boat for defensive pur- 
poses in a sheltered harbour might be of some 
little service, but for general warfare they are 
entirely out of date. They are about fifty feet 
long by perhaps sixteen in width. At either end 
they carry a -thirty-two poimd Paixhan gim. The 
direction of the gim can only be altered by 
slewing the craft round, and unless she should 
unhappily be between two enemies she can only 
use one gun at a time. Neither gun is available 
unless the boat is end on to her enemy, and con- 
sequently exposed to a raking fire. They sail 
miserably; and the heavy ordnance fore and aft 
make them so laboursome in a sea-way, that they 
are quite unfit to be trusted outside : the bow and 



THE VOYAGE. 47 

steniy moreover, are necessarily cut away to make 
room for the guns, and they form complete water- 
traps. Three or four such craft with a force of 
six or eight guns, require as many men as would 
man a steam-frigate ; and however formidable they 
may have been formerly to a sailing vessel in a 
calm, an active steam gun-boat or sloop would now 
give them the stem one after the other with im- 
puniiy : add to this that the strong crew of rowers 
required to work one of these vessels is necessarily 
exposed and liable to be fearfully cut up by shot, 
shell, and musketry. 

The Swedish officers are perfectly aware of 
the inefficiency of these antiquated machines, and 
probably a few years will see the last of them. 
Such as they are we found them in admirable 
order, as neat and smart as hands could make 
them. 

The next day we had our first taste of a Baltic 
breeze ; it blew hard and rained heavily, and a nasty 
chopping sea tumbled into the bay and broke 
against the rocks. We lay quietly in safety and 
smooth water, and amused ourselves by watching 



48 

the manoeuTres of the gun-boats; which were 
knocking about inside. They were miserably wet, 
and worked and sailed under their three lugs so 
unsatisfjEtctorily that we were entirely confirmed in 
our opinion that, except in the finest weather, they 
never could have been formidable, and now, under 
all circumstances, they are entirely bowled out by 
steam. 

In the evening we were invited by the lieutenant 
in command of a gun-boat to see a company or two 
of Swedish militiamen go through' their exercises. 
They were fine big men, well dressed, and bold 
independent-looking fellows. We asked to look at 
a musket, and one on the percussion principle was 
handed to us: a nice-looking weapon, clean and 
bright, but " What's the matter with the lock ? " 
" Oh," said the officer, who spoke English fluently, 
^* this is one that did make an accident ; she have 
broke her Hane : what you call that ? " " Cock/* 
"Yes, sare, kauk — she have broke her kauk." 
Another was produced, but with no better success — 
she had also broke her kauk. Our researches were 
carried no further. In the Swedish naval and 



THE VOYAGE. 49 

military matters generally the personnel appeared 
excellent, the materiel bad. 

I have nothing more to say of this miserable place 
but that the people were very civil, and that, when 
we went to take back our linen from the wash, the 
lady in question, having been surprised at a moment 
when she had laid aside her personal drapery, 
showed much modest and graceful embarrassment 
on the occasion, and four large fleas were found 
disporting themselves upon the bag which contained 
our linen. 

The next morning it was raining and blowing 
hard from the north-east : but we could not stand 
another day at Slitehamn,* so we got her under 



* The information gi^en in the book is rery defectiye. The best 
marks by which to know the place are a white beacon on an island 
named Margo, and also a white church standing back upon the main 
land. 

Margo is low and rocky, and must be left on the starboard hand ; as 
yon go in, a second island of a craggy, broken appearance, most also 
be left on the starboard hand. 

On the port hand is an island on which may be seen a flagsta£f, 
batteries, lime-kilns, &c. 

This is the best entrance, but there are two other islands with 
narrow channels on either side of them ; but reefis run o£f some distance, 
and the deep water is in the middle of the channel. 

There are other islands entirely out of the track : the passage 

£ 



60 LOG OF THE "PET." 

way with two reefs in the mainsail, and took her 
out. The sea was very short and heavy, and though 
it was not blowing more than half a gale, great 
watery gray clouds came suddenly up from the 
westward, trailing their wet wings in the troubled 
sea, and it looked as if more mischief were hatching. 
However, she went well to windward, as she always 
does, and stood well up under her sail. In about 
two hours we made out what at first we took for a 
ship at auchor, but within a mile of a lee shore ; 
and in such a sea ! 

Soon afterwards another and another were dis- 
covered; and, after a while, a little low smoky 
parasite steamer was made out a-head of each. 
These then were the ships, with the French troops 
on board, towing up to join the admiral. The sea, 
however, was too heavy for towing, and they began 
to make sail. They were now about five miles on 
our weather bow, and as they soon began to drop 

between the nortlienmiost island and the main is dangerous. It is a 
desolate, inconyenient place, very inferior to Faro Sound. 

N.B. — The light on Ostergamholm should be brought to bear west, 
before you change your course to stand in for Slitehamn. The reef is 
■ dangerous fall three miles N.E. of the light. 



THE VOYAGE. 61 

down to leeward, we made them out to be four 
French men-of-war, with three steamers in company. 
We followed them till within about two miles : but, 
as we were being drawn away from Faro Sound, 
where we expected letters, we hove about and stood 
in for the land.* 

And here a most nervous and anxious task began ; 

* The best mark for making out Faro Sound from the seaward is an 
island with a white beacon upon it, and some low trees, which at a 
distance have a strong resemblance to a row of houses. Stand boldly 
in for this, about N. i W. and leave it about a cable's length on the 
starboard hand. After passing this, another island with a beacon will 
be seen ; pass round a red buoy, leaving this land and buoy on the port 
hand. The roadstead is opposite the houses, in good holding ground, 
and plenty of water. There is another passage on the north side of 
the first island, between it and the reef called Miss Loper. The pilots 
only guarantee two fathoms by this entrance, but in coming in we 
never got less than three. When abreast of the island by this pas- 
sage, haul up for the point of land to the starboard. This will take 
you dear of a reef which lies at the back of the island ; pass this point 
at half a cable's length, leaving the second island on the port hand. 
The first passage, however, is the best, and for large vessels the only one. 
There is a narrow and dangerous passage through Faro Sound to the 
westward, which is only practicable for small vessels and with a pilot. 

N.B. — In coming from the southward and eastward, do not approach 
nearer than two miles, till the beacon bears north, on account of an 
off-lying rock, which, as well as that in the passage, goes by the name 
of Miss Loper. 

To distinguish Faro Sound from Slito, the best mark is the white 
church over Slito, besides the mill, lime-kiln, &c. The Slito Islands 
are bare and rocky, while the shores of Faro Sound and the first 
island are thickly wooded. 

B 2 



53 LOO OP THE "pet." 

for the directions in the hook were so vague as to 
be of little service, telling us only the names of 
places instead of their appearance; and, as we 
approached the land, it was with some fear and 
misgiving that I at last decided which was the true 
entrance to the haven. 

Beefs of sunken rocks are scattered about on 
either hand, two of which, the "Miss Lopers," 
have a less inviting appearance than any miss, old 
or young, of my acquaintance. The sea was now 
lashing these hard-ribbed maidens till they roared 
with rage, and the turmoil and din of the assault 
was the best mark for our guidance. At last I 
ventured to give the word, " Off mainsheet — keep 
her away ; " and, taking my place on the jaws of 
the gaff, I endeavoured to take her in. 

Snugly lay the ships far up in the tranquil road- 
stead, and wistfully we looked at the smooth water 
shining so bright and level a short half mile a-head, 
while around us nothing but dark tumbling billows, 
or more formidable white angry breakers, could be 
seen. 

A few minutes more and we were safe ; the lead 



THE VOYAGE. 58 

never gave ns less than three fathoftis: we had 
threaded onr way through all the reefs, and a little 
white-winged pilot-boat came flitting out from the 
land, and guided us to the anchorage. 

We had not been long anchored when a boat from 
H.M. steam-sloop "Otter" came alongside, eager 
for news. We had only a canard to give them, 
which we had picked up at Slito, to the effect that 
the English had taken Aland, but with great loss ; 
in return for this they told us of the chase of 
the "Gondola" and "Esmeralda" by a Russian 
steamer, and many other yams of the fleet ; some 
of which, however, proved rather too tough 
for us. 

The roads were full of craft, among which we 
made out a Swedish brig-of-war, a Eussian prize, 
and several smart merchantmen ; we were anxious, 
therefore, that the little " Pet " should stow her 
sails smartly ; and Ned having impressed this idea 
upon Peter the Dane, those worthies proceeded, with 
a great display of alacrity, to tie up the mainsail, 
each of them having got hold of his respective end 
of a tie which passed round the gaff and the sail, 



54 LOG OP THE "pet." 

when "heave," "hoy," — snap went the tie, and 
overboard they both fell, one to starboard and the 
other to port, while we stood laughing so that it 
was some time before we could pull them out, 
both looking very much as if they did not exactly 
see the point of the joke. 

The next morning the officer in command of the 
" Otter" came alongside to call, and persuaded us 
to walk up into the country and see a Swedish 
church. The day was hot and still ; little progress 
could be made at sea; we were short of fresh meat, 
and the cow that was destined to die for us was now 
chewing the cud of security beneath the shadow of 
her native pines; so we girded up our loins and 
went our way. 

The church, which stands about a mile from the 
village, is a mutilated half-ruinous temple ; but still, 
among the dirt and mould of neglect, glorious old 
fragments of church architecture peep out — ^relics of 
the times when men had not forgotten that He in 
whose honour churches are raised is perfect, and 
beauty is an element of perfection. The doorway 
is very beautiful, of the best decorated style; vine 



THE VOYAGE. 65 

and ivy leaves, clusters of grapes, chaplets of oak- 
leaves and acorns, stand out boldly on the capitals ; 
frfl^ments of grotesque and monstrous figures 
may be distinguished on either side ; the mullions 
in those windows that have not been tampered 
with are very bold, flowing, and original. In the 
interior, little remains of what once was there ; 
but fragments of stained glass, and here and 
there traces of colour on the roof and walls, are 
distinguishable. 

It is beautiful to light unawares, in some remote 
comer of the world, upon the timewom, but sturdy 
walls of a once noble Christian temple, still, amid 
the venerable dust of centuries, and the sordid scars 
of innovation, bearing stem'witness to the faith that 
is eternal, beautiful, and true. 

One of the gateways of the churchyard is peculiar 
and very beautiful ; it consists of three solid blocks 
of stone, on either side a straight short shaft 
richly moulded, and above, resting upon these, a 
third block cut into the form of a bold and very 
beautiful quatrefoil, supplies the place of an arch. 
The cusps are very prominent, and the singular 



56 

# 

boldness and simplicity of the design produce an 
excellent effect. 

The northern part of Gottland resembles the New 
Forest; the ground is undulating hill and valley, 
dark forest and green glade, with here and there a 
silvery strip of shining lake ; and away in the dis- 
tance blue sea fading into gray in the far-off east. 

We returned, and were introduced to the 
daughters of the principal merchant. Miss Emily 
and Mary Grubb, the roses of Faro Sound; now no 
longer doomed to blush unseen, nor to sing unheard 
nor to sleep imserenaded ; but wherever the British 
ensign waves and the pennon flies, there the like- 
nesses of the fair Emily and Mary Grubb are 
destined to be carried indelibly imprinted on the 
heart of every middy, mate, or lieutenant who has 
let go his anchor at Faro Sound : and it cannot be 
denied that it would be hard to find a gentleman in 
England who could retail such treacle, cheese, 
candles, and miscellaneous condiments, and, at the 
same time, display two such charming daughters as 
those who soothe the green old age of the parent 
Grubbs of Faro Sound. 



THE VOYAGE. 57 

Very much charmed with the first specimen we 
had seen of Swedish young ladies, we went on board 
the " Otter " to dinner, where we met two Swedish 
officers from the brig ; agreeable and gentlemanlike 
men, somewhat of the German type, but differing 
from ihem in the cleanness of tlieir hands and 
dress, as well as in taste and refinement. 

In the course of the evening we learned from our 
own and the Swedish officers that the operations 
in the Gulf of Finland would be confined to block- 
ade duty, as there was little prospect of the 
Russians coming out so long as one blue ensign 
remained; consequently our best chance of seeing 

o 

active proceedings would be at the Aland Isles. 
Accordingly, the next morning we took in a quarter 
of an tmhappy cow, a stock of biscuits, hams, and 
cheese, from a speculative brig, and a dozen or two 
of glorious golden sherry, which had been originally 
destined for the cellars of the Czar ; the ship that 
conveyed it, however, had been cast away on the 
coast of Faro, and the imperial sherry was stowed 
away in the lockers of the " Pet." 
Having replenished our stores, and taken leave 



58 LOG OP THE "pet." 

of the hospitable merchant and his daughters, we 
weighed anchor ; Mr. Allen, of the " Otter," having 
kindly offered to bear us company as £ar as the 
open sea. 

I cannot take leave of Faro Sound without 
expressing my conviction that this place presents 
an excellent opening for a man of enterprise and 
capital. 

The harbour is formed by the strait or sound 
which separates the large island of Gottland from 
Faro, and may be entered either from the north- 
ward and westward, towards the coast of Sweden, 
or from the southward and eastward in the direction 
of the Gulf of Finland, Eiga, and the Prussian 
ports. The whole trade of the Gulf of Bothnia and 
Finland, of Biga as well as of Stockholm, must pass 
close to this excellent harbour. In the Baltic, 
where ships are frequently caught in the ice and 
damaged, a safe port in this position is of the 
greatest value. All that is wanted is a good ship- 
yard, and such stores as vessels in general stand in 
need of. Mr. Peto has shown us that it is possible 
to create a commercial port at Lowestoft, and at 



THE VOYAGE. 59 

Fard Sound the facilities appear to me much 
greater ; in fact, the port is there already. The only 
reason why Faro Sound is not now a thriving place 
appears to me to be that there is nothiag to be got, 
and no opportunity for the British mariner to 
indulge in his peculiar genius for spending money. 

"Wisby, formerly a Hanse town of great import- 
ance, has a miserable harbour only fit for boats'; and 
Slitehamn, in spite of the puff in the Seaman's 
Guide, is not for a moment to be compared to Faro 
Sound. The capabilities of the place as a military 
port are most important. 

Before we had settled all this in our minds, the 
light summer breeze had towed us out to sea, and it 
was time to bid farewell to our guest, and to shape 
our course for the Aland Isles. 

The wind was light and fickle, but the sea was 
warm with the breath of the western breeze ; long 
dreamy billows came rolling up all golden with the 
glare of the setting sun, and every whisper of sea 
and sky promised us a fair breeze, and what I 
dearly love, a fine Sunday at sea. 

At early dawn we got a glimpse of Gottska 



60 I*OG OF THE "pet." 

Sando, an island to the northward of Faro; at 
breakfieist-time we spoke the " Commodore " brig, 
homeward bound from the Gulf of Bothnia. No 
news. Still the south-west wind blew steady and 
fair, and with her balloon sails just sleeping in the 
breeze, the little "Pet" swept smoothly over the 
seas. 

A fair wind and fine weather make pleasant sail- 
ing. In so small a craft the sensation of security 
never degenerates from a luxury to a bore, and the 
stolen intervab of idleness, when some favourite 
book is taken from the shelf and one dreams away a 
peaceful hour, are doubly sweet. At midnight the 
Soderarm light on the Swedish side was seen, and we 
knew that we were nearly up with Led Sound, the 
anchorage of the allied fleet. 

The Bussian light on Logskar, the first patch of 

o 

the Aland archipelago, was of course not lit, and as 
the night came on dark and threatening, we took 
sail off her, and hove to for daylight. 

The rising sun showed the Bussian island, with 
its low, red lighthouse within a few gun-shots, 
and far away to the north-east, we saw the sea. 



THE VOYAGE. 61 

as far as the eye could reach, bristUcg \sith masts 
and spars. 

Hurrah ! the voyage is done, the haven is won ! ! 
Swiftly flew the " Pet," wafted on the wings of the 
north vdnd, up the sparkling sound, while every 
mile we ran showed mast after mast, ship after ship, 
towering high and huge in the distance. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE FLEET. 

*' Ibis Libumis inter alta nayium 
Amice propugnacnla." 

At the entrance of the Sound lay a smart French 
frigate, in honour of whom we ran up our colours as 
we passed ; to which she immediately responded by 
hoisting her ensign. This was a great compliment 
to the httle " Pet," and a highly dignified proceed- 
ing. I must confess, however, that our pride was a 
little humbled on observing that Ned, who was half 
asleep, had hoisted the ensign upside down, and 
there it was flying in the morning sun, a signal of 
distress, A few more minutes and we were among 
them all. The huge " Queen," the magnificent 
"Princess Eoyal," the brilliant " St. Jean d' Acre," 
and the glorious "Duke," with many more noble 
ships, French and English, sat proudly and peace- 
fully on the waters of the Czar; transports and 



THE FLEET. 63 

storesliips by scores, conspicuous among whom was 
the ill-fated "Prince," lay scattered on the skirts 
of the squadron ; smart man-of-war boats dashed 
about in all directions, and the shrill sounds of the 
whistle, the hoarse word of command, and all the 
orderly bustle of man-of-war life, after the dreary 
solitude of the Baltic, formed a most exciting scene. 

In point of paint and polish, the Frenchmen, it 
must be confessed, had, on the whole, the advantage 
of us; men were passing outside them busily 
grooming their sleek sides with wash-leather, others 
were hard at work on the boats scrubbing the sides, 
the oars, and the boat-hooks ; and the rigging of 
the ships swarmed with boys like delirious monkeys, 
running up and down, some heels upwards, prac- 
tising all sorts of antics and absurdities. We 
passed from ship to ship, delighted with the stirring 
scene. At length we were beginning to look out 
for a berth, when a gig dashed up alongside, with 
an officer, who invited us to drop astern of the 
" Acre," and ride by one of her hawsers. 

This offer we gladly accepted, and soon the 
"Pet" was safely resting imder the protection of 



64 LOG OP THE "pet." 

this noble ship, and with high feelings of satisfac- 
tion we turned in for an hoards repose. 

But there was little prospect here of sleep or 
repose : boat after boat came alongside to convey 
a welcome and to ask for news, and soon the band of 
a line-of-battle ship burst out with the stirring strains 
of Partant powr la Syrie ; another and another took 
it up, and the lonely waters of Led Sound, which 
had probably never rippled to other music than the 

e 

droning tones of an Aland fisherman, or the shriller 
melodies of native maidens as they rowed their car- 
goes of fruit to the market of Bomaren, were now 
taught to vibrate to the notes of God save the Queen, 

We had just finished our walk round the decks of 
the "Acre," where marines were equipping them- 
selves for duty and volunteers were overhauling 
their revolvers for the expedition, when a handsome 
little middy accosted us, and brought us the offer of 
a tow up to Bomarsund from the " Cuckoo." 

This was too good an offer to be neglected, so we 
left the warlike world of the line-of-battle ship, and 
bore up for the " Cuckoo," now lying with steam up 
all ready to sail, half a mile to leeward. 



THE FLEET. 65 

o 

Aland is pronounced Aweland; the name sig- 
nifies water-land, thus differing from the Swedish 
Olandy which is derived, like our own ialandy from 
69 an isle, and Land, a country, and signifies 
isle-land, or large isle. 

O, or oe, an isle, is the final o which appears 
in so many Scandinavian names ; thus, Uto, 
outer-isle, Sando, Earlso, Storo, Christianso, &c. 
In Dutch it takes the form Oog, as Langer 
Oog, "Wanger Oog. In English it becomes ey, 
as Guernsey, Orkney ; or sometimes it retains 
the form of ea, as Anglesea, Angles* Island^ Manea, 
&c. The Isle of Wight was formerly called 
Wightea, or Wight's Island; the Wights or Wyts 
being one of the three tribes which came from 
Jutland and colonised England. 

o 

The etymology of Aland, however, is different, 
and the name water-land is well suited to the place, 
so intricately are land and water, sea and tarn, rock 
and island, twisted and jumbled together. 

The islands are mostly rough, irregular heaps of 
hard, red granite rock and boulders, thickly grown 
over with dark pines ; and here and there, between 



66 LOG OP THE " PET. 

the hills, a little green yalley, a small fresh lake, or 
a little Swiss-looking village of bright-red wooden 
cottages may be seen. So irregular are the bays 
and creeks, that it is very difficult to form a general 
idea of the topography. In strolling about one is 
frequently intercepted by a creek that effectually 
bars all progress, and compels one to make a detour 
of miles to get round it; and often when parched 
with thirst, the delighted traveller sees a shining 
little land-locked lake below, he rushes down, and 
to his great disgust plunges his parched and eager 
lips in the brackish, sickly waters of the Baltic. 
The trees grow close to the margin of the sea, and 
here and there some beautiful little nooks may be 
found, reminding one of Bampool and Mount Edg- 
combe; but, on the whole, the scenery is by no 
means striking. 

Nearly in the centre of the group is a fine shel- 
tered roadstead called Lumpar Bay, communicating 
with the sea to the northward by Bomarsund, a 
narrow strait between the islands of Bomar and 
Presto. 

This sixait was strongly fortified on the western. 



T^E FLEET. 67 

or Bomar side, by a large half-moon battery, close 
to the water's edge, and two large martello towers, 
named Fort Tzee and Fort Nottich ; on the eastern, 
or PrestS side, another martello tower, Fort Presto, 
goarded the passage. The narrow strait might 
be considered perfectly impassable, and consequently 
Lumpar Bay, with its Tillages, and the barracks and 
stores which were being accumulated, were con- 
sidered safe from a hostile fleet. 

It was, however, I believe. Captain Sulivan of the 
" Lightning " who discovered and buoyed out the 
south passage from Led Sund to Lumpar Bay; a 
passage so narrow and intricate, that the Bussians 
had entirely neglected to fortify or obstruct it, but 
so deep and so judiciously marked, that our line-of- 
battle ships steamed up and down, and our frigates 
rattled backwards and forwards at full power, with- 
out, I believe, one accident, of consequence. ' 

It was by this passage that the " Cuckoo " towed 
us up to the scene of action, and it was not without 
surprise and admiration that we saw her dashing 
in among the rocks, frequently within pistol shot of 
the shore, where hard granite crags promised a 

F 2 



68 

rough reception to any unfortunate craft that might 
invade their territory. The dark pines threw their 
branches over the sea on either side, and now and 
then, as the strait wound among the woods, a taunt 
topmast with a blue ensign or blazing tricolor might 
be seen, like some interloping tree of strange out- 
landish growth, towering over the sombre pines. 

Villages and fishermen's huts appeared here and 
there ; but war had already stretched out his deso- 
lating hand, and no human form, divine or other- 
wise, could be discovered. 

It was still early when we cleared the narrow 
creek, and the magnificent panorama in Lumpar Bay 
burst upon us ; the Bussian forts, glistening white 
in the sun's glare, straight before us ; to the west- 
ward, little scattered islands and dark peaceful 
woods ; and in the foreground, some thirty sail of 
different sizes in all the pomp and circumstance 
of war. 

Here we cast off the tow-rope from our kind friend 
the " Cuckoo," and bore up for a berth where we 
saw the " Esmeralda " schooner at anchor. We had 
scarcely brought up before we had a little squadron 



THE FLEET. 69 

of boats around us eager for news, and loudly eK- 
pressing their surprise and congratulations that so 
small a craft should have succeeded in reaching so 
distant a port in an enemy's country, and fortunately 
for us, on the very eve before the battle. 

During the whole afternoon ship after ship came 
into the roads, welcomed by cheers and martial 
music as she approached, and eagerly were the forts 
opposite watched by a hundred telescopes; but 
little could be seen of the enemy's proceedings : a 
great tall flagstaff towered from each fort, but not a 
scrap of bunting asserted the sovereignty of the 
Czar. Towards evening a few of their troops were 
marched down to bathe ; we could see them splash- 
ing, and we could hear their yells and shouts. 
Poor fellows ! many of them were destined to take 
their next bath in the dark waters of Acheron. 

"We dined on board the " Esmeralda," and there 
we heard the rumour fully confirmed that the attack 
would begin at daylight; and the last sound that 
reached us before we slept, was the ratUe of the 
Russian drums. 



70 



TUXSDAT, S. 

'All night, boats jBlled with French troops were 
passing. close to us, and about midnight a French 
steam sloop ran ashore on a reef close to the 
" Pet," and the row that was made in their ineffec- 
tual efforts to get her off was tremendous : shortly 
afterwards three cannon shots were heard from a 
mud battery of fiye guns, which the Eussians had 
built under Fort Tzee, and close to the water ; but 
it was impossible to make out what they were 
blazing at. 

At daybreak we were awoke by heavy firing, and 
we soon made out the "Amphion" (British) and 
" Phlegethcn " (French) engaging the five-gun mud 
battery. They had got within musket-shot, in a 
position where they took the enemy in flank, while 
not a single gun could bear on the ships. The 
scene of havoc was complete : blaze after blaze from 
the ships, answered by corresponding flashes and 
thundering reports as the shells burst in the devoted 
battery. The enemy had very judiciously bolted as 
soon as he found himself outflanked, and the fire of 



THE FLEET. * 71 

the fiigates was expended upon the unoffending 
mud, till at length the Admiral gave by signal per- 
mission to land, and in a moment four boats were 
dashing for the shore; the '^Amphion*' won the 
race, and the bowman leapt ashore with the blue 
ensign, neither knowing nor caring how many 
" Eooshins " might be skulking behind the ruins. 
However, the place was entirely empty, and after 
spiking the guns, which were already overturned and 
disabled, they returned to their ships, and this 
smart little affair ended. The most creditable part 
of the business was, that the ships were skilfully 
piloted into a berth close to the shore, from which 
they performed the service intrusted to them effec- 
tually in haK an hour, without the slightest loss or 
damage. 

Meanwhile, " Bulldog " and " Stromboli '* were in 
a little bay to the westward, shelling Fort Tzee, one 
of the martello towers ; but though they approached 
close to the shore, the tower stood too high and too 
far back to be assailable from the sea. 

The Bussians also did not fail to bum powder 
and expend shot and shell for the benefit of 



7a LOG OF THE " PET/* 

the " Amphion " and " Phlegethon," both from Fort 
Tzee, and also from the great half-moon battery. 
Their practice, however, was very bad, and though 
the shells burst over and all round the ships, I 
eould not hear that even a rope was cut. 

All the. morning, the shore still frirther to the 
westward was crowded with boats and barges, land- 
ing the French troops. It was a bustling and 
exciting scene, and .every one spoke in admiration 
of the orderly and systematic manner in which the 
French managed the landing. No sooner did a 
boat touch the beach, than the men were ashore 
and away on their respective duties, some chopping 
fuel, others clearing a road; a party of carpenters 
were soon high busy running out a pier. In an hour 
or two water had been found, tents pitched, cooking 
under way, cows pillaged and most artistically 
butchered, a canteen with a smart vivandidre in 
fiill swing ; and a little thriving military village was 
already extemporized, and in ftdl vitality. Every 
man knew what to do, and how to do it, and all 
with the utmost bonhomie, good humour, and 
gaiety. A Frenchman in camp seems always in a 



THE FLEET. 73 

high state of enjoyment; an Englishman, on the 
contrary, like some man-eating tiger when he sniffs 
blood, is savage, surly, and ravenous, at the prospect 
of fighting. 

About noon, the " Bulldog," bearing Sir Charles's 
flag', was passing in front of the batteries in high 
state and splendour, and going nearly at fuU power, 
when she ran hard and fast upon a sunken rock, and 
there she lay a good long gun-shot from the forts, 
fixed apparently as firmly as the rocks themselves. 

It was very pretty to see the gallant " Amphion '' 
come to her assistance, just crawling a-head with a 
leadsman on the dolphin striker, and another in the 
chains on either side ; but it was not till near sun- 
set, and till after starting water, and lightening in 
various ways, that she was hove into deep water 
once more. 

The "Bulldog" was certainly not out of shot; 
for some days aflerwisurds I saw the Russian shot fly 
over the shoal a hundred yards or more ; but though 
a whole flotilla of boats, and two or three ships, lay 
motionless on the spot the whole afternoon, the 
enemy did not fire a shot. 



74 LOG OP THE "pet." 

This morning we painted, scraped, and varnished 
the '' Pet's " sides and spars : in a few hours the 
hot sun had dried everything, and in the afternoon 
we got under way with our balloon topsail and jib, 
and cruised round the fleet, and in front of the 
batteries. We could see the embrasures swarming 
with heads and faces as the saucy little "Pet" 
passed the long fort at about two musket-shots 
distance; but we well knew that they would not 
waste a shot on so tiny an antagonist, and but for 
the chance of a sunken rock we had nothing to fear. 

I have had many a pleasant day's sailing in my 
life, but this little cruize in Lumpar Bay surpassed 
them all ; the bright sun, the pleasant breeze, the 
noble fleet, French and English, with their bright 
colours and ringing music, the enemy's batteries, 
the troops landing, their gay uniforms, glistening 
here and there among the dark foliage of the 
forest, while from time to time a gun from the 
batteries would roar out a sullen curse of defiance, 
and send its red-hot offspring muttering and moan- 
ing high overhead to seek a peaceful bed in the 
dark depths of Lumpar Bay, 



THE FLEET. 75 

We returned to our berth well out of harm's way, 
and heard nothing more, till a little before the 
first gleam of day, several shots and a rattling 
volley of musketry broke the silence of the summer 
night. We heard afterwards that the guard-boats 
had been fired upon by the enemy, but I believe 
witliout effect. 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE CAMP. 



** Der Esel ist ein dnmmes Thier, 
Der Elephant kann Nickts dafUr. 

Trala, trala, trala.** 

We had a pleasant excursion two days after- 
wards to the camp. Our party consisted princi- 
pally of officers on leave from one of the line-of- 
battle ships in Led Sound ; and a very merry party 
it was. One arrayed in a white Guernsey frock 
bore a quarter of veal slung round his shoulders 
as a present to a friend in the camp; others carried 
huge bottles ; one or two had knapsacks freighted 
with wine, biscuits, and condiments ; and in heavy 
marching order off we went. We had about |pur 
miles to walk, chiefly through pine forests. We 
passed through two French encampments, where 
we were received with much merriment at our 
grotesque appearance, but at the same time with 
great politeness and a hearty welcome. 



THE CAMP. 77 

At length we reached the British camp, where 
some four hundred marines, a few sappers, and a 
colony of some two hundred blue-jackets were 
located. The spot ^ed on was a little level patch 
on the spring of the hill on which Fort Tzee was 
placed. The camp, which was of course entirely 
unfortified, was sheltered from sight by the rising 
ground, but was well within range of Fort Tzee, 
and certainly not beyond long bowl practice either of 
Fort Nottich or the great half-moon battery below. 
The hill that intervened was thick with trees, brush- 
wood, and irregular rocks : and though Inkermann 
had not yet taught us its fearful lesson, still there 
were more than one amongst us who thought that 
if the enemy had dared to risk a midnight sortie, 
our camp was so placed that we must have been shot 
to a man, or have fallen back upon the French. 

The last bit of camp gossip we heard was, that 
the night before, an officer was reclining in his 
hut, solacing himself with a novel, the enemy 
were firing at intervals, but no danger was anti- 
cipated; suddenly our friend the officer heard an 
imusual sound, and his curly locks were disturbed 



78 LOG OF THE "pet." 

by an uiiexpected movement, and on investigation 
he discovered that a shot, about the size of a golden 
pippin, had pierced his pillow, and buried itself in 
the soil under his left ear. 

The camp was singularly pretty and picturesque. 
The sappers had built themselves the neatest little 
huts of small fir branches with the stump upwards, 
so that they formed a snug roof ahnost as water- 
proof as thatch, and very pretty to look at. Jack 
more ambitious, had hewn off large branches with 
his cutlass, and placed them as they grow. This 
arrangement produced fine roomy huts, but a large 
supply of accidental doors and unintentional win- 
dows made a pleasing variety, and afforded the 
inmates an opportunity of contemplating the 
motions of the heavenly bodies. The officers of 
the " Acre " had a splendid bell tent, as, big as a 
bullock-shed; but the most striking thing in the 
tent way was the Coloners; — ^this consisted of a 
single blanket stretched over a pole and strained 
tightly down to the ground ; into this the gallant 
officlsr crawled all-fours whenever sleep assailed his 
weary eyes. A number of military accoutrements. 



THE CAMP. 79 

andy if I remember right, a little strip of a flag, 
gave splendour and dignity to the domicile; and I 
think on the whole the Colonel used to turn out 
in the morning about the smartest and best shaved 
man in the camp. I must confess that the French 
camp gave the impression that they were profes- 
sional performers, and ours that we were amateurs ; 
and yet here were our fellows with their handful 
of men in the advanced position, well within gun- 
shot, and perfectly in the humour to receive any- 
thing in the way of shot and shell, bayonet or 
cutlass, that the enemy might feel inclined to oflTer. 
After a time, we amateurs began to stroll about 
and endeavour to understand the topography of the 
place; the sentries, however, had orders to allow 
no one to pass to the front, and our walk was rather 
circumscribed. Presently, however, a sentry seeing 
that one of us had a glass, beckoned to us to 
approach, and swore that he had seen half a dozen 
fellows in long dark cloaks crouching among the 
bushes before him. We watched for some time, but 
the sentry's eyes were sharper than ours, and we 
could make nothing of it. 



80 LOG OP THE "pet." 

" There they goes, Sir," he said ; " I sees 'em a 
openin out behind that air rock, and one on 'em 
is overhaulin us with his glass." 

Not one of us, however, had the luck to see 
them, and I believe it was all an illusion on the 
part of the worthy marine ; still some native women 
who had passed through the camp were observed 
to bend their course in that direction. The thing 
was reported, ftnd in a few minutes the valley was 
ringing with the hoarse sounds of military com- 
mand, as the men were turned out and mustered. 
An officer with three men was sent out to recon- 
noitre, and to our great delight we got permission 
to accompany him. 

We soon passed the spot to which the sentry's 
suspicions had been directed, and not a squirrel or 
a field mouse could be seen ; but the chance was 
too good to lose, and we determined to get a good 
look at Fort Tzee before we returned. The dis- 
tance was short, and on mounting the summit we 
gained full view of the tower about three hundred 
yards before us. In an instant the inefficiency of 
a round tower was obvious ; it was impossible to 



THE CAMP. 81 

concentrate a fire upon any point. The fort had 
two tiers besides some lattice openings in the roof; 
the lower tier, with the exception of one or two 
embi^asuresy was bricked up, and two, or possibly 
four, guns were the most that could be brought 
to bear upon any point within breaching distance. 
A sentry was stalking about in his long bed-gown- 
looking coat, a slack-hosed varlet in appearance, 
and we saw some Eussian visages, Tartareas fauces , 
among whom we distinguished a woman, peering 
out of an embrasure, but no notice was taken of 
our presence. To the left and below lay Fort 
Nottich, scarcely three hundred yards from us, and 
further to the northward lay the calm blue sea, 
with here and there a little angry wasp of a steamer 
flaunting her blue ensign or her tricolor in the 
face of the foe. 

These round towers with their white perpendi- 
cular sides and their red iron-capped roofs- have 
a bold martial appearance, but their real strength, 
as events proved, was entirely over-rated.* 

* A military critic who has honoured the first edition of this work 
with a review, written, for the most part, in a tone of fair and gentle- 
manlike criticism, as^s with some asperity by whom it is supposed 

a 



82 LOG OF THE " PET." 

While this reconnaissance was going on, one of 
our party made out a little hut recently deserted 
by some Bussian sentinel, and hastened to creep 
in imobserved and await the issue of events. Pre- 
sently the rest of the party came on — " Hallo, here's 
a hut." " The devil there is. Mind what you're 
at; by George there's a fellow in itl" Click, 
click, went the lock of the officer's pistol — clack, 
clack, went the soldiers* firelocks, when an excla- 
mation from within, in the most undeniable English 
vernacular, put a stop to all hostile demonstrations ; 
the mountain was delivered, and Mr. Buggins of 
the " Cockatoo " appeared. 

The first night in camp was most interesting, 

especially to a man whose lot has fallen in peaceful 

places. The warlike sights and sounds, the jokes 

and tales and rough good-fellowship of the tent, the 

challenge of the sentry, the crashing report of a 

gun, and the horrid roar of a round shot overhead, 

affrighting the still summer night ; the lights of the 

that these forts were over-rated. Of course by those who sent so 
^ormous a force to reduce them. Not a tenth part of the French 
were engaged, and the greater part never were within sight of the 
enemj. 



THE CAMP. 88 

ships twinkling in the silent bay ; the possibility >o 
a surprise; the prospect of stirring scenes on the 
morrow — all these things at first constitute a 
romance of the most excitiDg kind. 

" Think of the horrors of war," said Bones of the 
" Himchback," as he tossed oflf a brimful horn of 
porter, and proceeded to light a cheroot. 

" Bill," shouted a voice from the other compart- 
ment of the hut, where the blue-jackets were stowed 
as thick as potatoes in a sack — " Bill, you blessed 
Eooshin ! you set up for a siiort-hoaed character; 
where are them legs of yours a coming to? ** 

It began to grow warm, so we lighted our cigars, 
and went out for a stroll. 

"Who goes there?" 

"Friend." 

" Bloody lot of friends," replied the sentry, a highly 
respectable Scotchman, who did not approve of 
irregularities. 

" Qui va Id ? " 

"Officiers Anglais;" and we strolled into a 
French encampment, where quaint-looking Gallic 
groups were chatting around the watch-fires with 

o 2 



.84 LOG OP THE "PET. 

lively gesticulations; and from the scraps of dia- 
logue that reached us, it seemed to be la politique, 
imd not la guerre, that formed the topic of dis- 
cussion. 

The French sentries are very prompt and re- 
morseless in firing upon strangers who do not reply 
to their challenge. 

On the day of the landing of the troops, a Eussian 
lady, I believe a Frenchwoman, but the widow of a 
Eussian officer killed by a shell fi'om the " Valo- 
rous '* or " Hecla," was endeavouring to escape in a 
carriage, under the care of a priest. The first party 
they fell in with was a group of British officers, who 
called upon them to halt. The padre, however, 
only lashed his horse into a gallop ; upon this, one 
of the officers dashed into a footpath in the wood, 
and, cutting off an angle of the road, appeared in 
front of the calfeche with his rifle covering them. 
This time they halted quick enough. They were 
treated with all possible kindness, and, being non- 
combatants, were allowed to depart, with many 
good wishes, and a warning to stop next time when 
summoned. 



THE CAMP. 85 

This warning, however, was not suflScient. The 
next time they were hailed by a French sentry, and 
again the unhappy pastor, trusting the speed of the 
horse, went oflF at a gallop. The Frenchman fired, 
and they both fell ; one of them, the poor woman 
I believe, to rise no more. This unhappy story 
was related with many variations, but the version I 
have given is, I think, substantially true. 

As we walked back, we were startled by the 
sudden angry crash of a gun from Fort Tzee, 
sounding in the still air as if it were close aboard 
of us, and at the same instant a shell rushed over- 
head with a strange unearthly roar, and plunged 
sullenly into the deep soil of the valley, where it 
lay spent and hannless for a few moments, and then 
proceeded to burst itself, as if firom sheer vexation, 
to the great amusement of the blue-jackets, who 
immediately proceeded to dub the projectile and its 
projectors with every fanciful and opprobrious 
designation which their florid and playful imagina- 
tion could suggest. We returned to the hospitable 
hut of the lieutenant in command of the guns, tired 
and heavy with sleep, but it was long before we 



86 LOG OP THE "pet." 

C011I4 close our eyes, so irresistibly amusing were 
the manners and customs of our neighbours, the 
mariners of England. Unfortunately, there was a 
strong family likeness about their remarks, which 
might render them perhaps in some measure 
unsuited to the decorous pages of this faithful 
history; although by no means ck t^v &Kp6a<nv 
iT€fmi<n€pa^ they might perhaps be scarcely worth 
preserving as a ict^/xo cy 4c^. 

After having been often kindly and hospitably 
received by the sailors of the fleet — ^I believe the 
finest fellows upon God's earth or ocean — ^it would 
ill become me to tell idle tales to their disparage- 
ment ; but it may not be too much to say, that I 
should be glad to see the day when brutal oaths 
and foul unmanly words were banished for ever 
from our glorious service. 

The business of the next day was dragging the 
heavy guns up to the camp. It was a strange, sight 
to see the long train of 150 seamen to a gun come 
winding up the rough and narrow road. First in 
the procession came the band, dusty, way-worn, 
and red-hot with pufl&ng, making the valleys ring 



THE CAMP. 87 

to the unwonted strains of ''Nancy Dawson,** or 
" Cheer, boys, cheer ; " next came the seamen^ 
togging away at the hawser, while officers roshefl 
about to guide their course, and excite them to 
greater exertion ; lastly, came the gun, mounted on 
a sledge, which rolled, pitched, and slewed about 
the rough ground, while half-a-dozen smart fellows 
did their best to steady it with their handspikes, and 
others tried to smooth the monster's way with rollers. 
The sledges were very cumbrous ; a tail-rope was 
much wanted to steady them down-hill, and I 
cannot help thinking that something in the way 
of a two-wheeled timber jill would have been an 
improvement. 

" Now, my lads, don't let the d d thing beat 

us," sung out a boatswain, and away they went 
again a few more yards, when the gun got restivCi 
and plunged off its rollers. A few minutes, remon- 
strance with the gun, and off again ; this time the 
gun showed positive vice, jibbed, swerved, and 
toppled over upon a seaman and crushed his leg. 

" Never mind, my boys, up with her again ; she i$ 
to go." 



88 LOG OF THE " PET." 

" Go," muttered a sailor ; " I wish the cussed 
gun would go to " 

" Hark, here comes a shot ! " and, with a deafen- 
ing din, a round shot rushed by, and, amid a cloud 
of dust, buried itself in the meadow at our feet. 
Sudden as this visit was, it certainly startled most 
of us considerably. I believe every head ducked in 
compliment to the iron despot. One I certainly 
can answer for. The next moment a rush was 
made; and, amidst shouts of laughter, a dozen 
blue-jackets were seen scuffling, scrambling, and 
burrowing for the shot. 

" Avast there, *tis a shell! " sung out an alarmist. 

" Shell be bust ! " replied another, as he dug out 
a nice smooth 18-pound shot, which was stowed 
away in a bread-bag, and carried off as a first trophy 
to the camp. 

The next gun, with its whole train of musicians, 
pullers, haulers, and shovers, had come to a dead 
lock in front of a little native farm-house, and many 
of the men fell out and ran to the cottage to beg for 
a drink. A number of French soldiers were loung- 
ing about, besides several officers, and a lot of 



THE CAMP. 89 

idlers from the sliips. The natives had all turned 
out to see the fun, and the foremost of the group 
was a tall, slim girl, who had seen some seventeen 
summers, her neck and white shoulders, almost to 
the waist, imcovered, except hy her long fair hair, 
which hung at full length around her, and which 
she was most industriously combing with the 
utmost unconcern. At a little distance the group 
formed a strange and pretty picture. 

A little farther on, and after another determined 
fit of jibbing, bucking, and kicking on the part of 
the gun, w-e reached a French encampment, and 
about half a hundred of our friendly allies came and 
clapped on to the tow-rope. With this assistance 
the gun went up merrily enough. But our sailors 
were greatly disgusted when they saw masters of 
merchant-ships and other idlers riding about on 
horses hired from the natives, while men were 
tugging their arms off, and running the risk of 
broken limbs in gun-dragging. They protested 
that the horses should have been pressed and em- 
ployed, and the remarks of the French to the same 
effect did not improve the temper of the men. 



90 

When the French wanted horses, carts, cows, or 
sheep — whether they paid for them or not I have no 
knowledge, but, nolens volenSf they took them. 

"Yes, sir," remarked a sergeant of marines, 
"that's the way we does wherever we goes; we 
spare the innimey, but we spoil the men." 



CHAPTEB VIL 

THE SIEGE. 

*^Par. I Innliif tibuk jcm, sir: a traA's a traA; tkejarcBMr- 
Tdlon poorrogacB adeed.** 

NoTHiKG pots sailors so mnch ont of humour as 
inactLon in the presence of an enemy; and the 
notion of landing gons to besiege the forts sodger- 
fashion, while the ships were lying just out of range 
with colours flying and bands of music playing, was 
inost disgusting to Jack's notions of British pluck. 
It was not pleasant to hear the French growling at 
the inaction, which they did not hesitate to impute 
to the English authorities ; and disparaging expres- 
sions were heard repeatedly, — generally, however, 
accompanied by the saving clause, " Mais il vaut 
bkn le notre.*' On all sides the greatest disgust 
was expressed for. the modem system of naval 
warfare ; the principle of which seemed to be, to 
keep out of gun-shot. 



92 

"None of that d d nonsense now we're 

ashore," said a marine oflScer ; a sentiment in which 
-all present concurred most heartily. 

But the stone wall and red-hot shot disease had got 
hold of the authorities, and the ships were resolutely 
kept out of harm's way. Meanwhile, disappoint- 
ment and disgust seemed to weigh heavy upon all ; 
curses low and deep were muttered, — " The French 
would get the start of us, and gain all the credit of 
the enterprise." — "Let five himdred marines and 
as many blue-jackets alone, and they'd take the 

d d place before dinner-time." — "What's the 

use of talking, sir ; 'twas just the same at that other 

place. How do we know the ships can't do 

nothing if we neter tries 'em ? " — " The ' Walorous,' 
along with the * Hecla ' and * Odin,' nearly got the 
place in no time, them three by t^ieir selves. Give 

Captain the command, and he'd lam 'em 

English." 

Among the officers the same opinions were ex-» 
pressed, though, of course, with more reserve. And 
I don't believe there were ten, perhaps only two, 
men in the fleet who did not believe that if the 



THE SIEGE. 93 

ships had gone in resolutely at first a& close as the 
water permitted, the place would have been ours 
before sunset. 

While this discontent was at its height, suddenly 
a heavy gun sounded from the fort; another and 
another followed in quick succession, and soon 
began a heavy and continuous fire from the great 
Half-moon battery down by the sea. The excite- 
ment caused by this was not allayed by the news 
telegraphed from the " Belleisle " that the " Pene- 
lope " was ashore, and the Eussians were hulling 
her. In a moment the camp was in a roar ; and 
when a message came from the admiral that the 
block-ships were to go in to the rescue, it was a 
fine sight to see. All discontent and grumbling 
were now at an end. Many of the block-ships' 
men were in camp, and away they went in the 
highest glee, trotting away, head up and tail up, all 
eager for the fight. It was fine to see a dozen 
great hairy ruffians crowding round their captain in 
childish delight, begging to know if there was a 
chance of getting down in time. Many of them 
had come up without breakfast, and were all faint 



94 LOG OF THE " PET." 

and weary with hunger, heat, and tolL But not a 
rap did they care now for anything, hut the chance 
of a hlaze at the Booshins, and the fear of heing 
too late for the fun. We took a hurried leave of 
our friends in camp, and made the best of our way 
to the sea. 

" How they're givin' it the poor ' Peenelopp * 
now," said a " Blenheim " man, whom we over- 
hauled rolling and pitching as he jogged over the 
rough ground. And, true enough, gun after gun 
was bellowing at the stranded ship from Fort Tzee 
and the Half-moon. After walking and running 
about a mile, we had to leave our convoy and strike 
off alone through the forest in the direction of 
the more distant anchorage where the " Pet " lay. 
For a time all went well; we had a few park palings 
to climb, and once or twice we were hailed by a French 
wood or watering party ; but, after another mile, we 
had to make a wide circuit to avoid a tarn, and 
then our course led us into a wood, where the trees 
were so high and thick that we lost the sun. This, 
with constant windings, rendered necessary by 
water or inaccessible rock, made it difficult to keep 



THE SIEGE. 95 

a true course, and it would have been awkward 
enough to have emerged from the woods in fiill 
front of Fort Nottich ; and every now and then, 
when we heard the sound of axe or saw in the 
forest, we approached with no little misgiving that 
it might be a Bussian and not a French party 
before us. 

I happened, however, to have with me a little 
compass, the smallest little thing possible ; I wore 
it more as a charm than for use ; but it was true 
and good as the gold of which it was made, and, 
under its faithful guidance, we at length reached a 
French camp perched on the very top of a steep 
and rugged hill. 

Here we were accosted by an officer, who took us 
through the camp, which, as usual, was beautifully 
orderly and picturesque ; and, with a soldier to 
show us the way, we started once more for the 
"Pet." 

We had nearly reached the sea, and after marching 
some sbi miles in the dust and scorching sun, with 
heavy knapsacks on our shoulders, we were suffer- 
ing fearfully from thirst, when we encountered a 



96 LOG OF THE " PET." 

company of French with a smart vivandi^re in front 
plodding upward from the sea. 

We begged a drink of water, which was given us 
freely and kindly, the men asking for news, and the 
little vivandi^re chattering away as hard as she 
could all the time. 

A few minutes more and we were in our own boat 
rowing oflF to the " Pet," whose mainsail was ready 
hoisted, and her cable short. It was soon up and 
away, and we were off for the scene of action ; but 
the " Penelope " had got off before the block-ships 
could get under way, and the order was counter- 
manded. We passed under the stern of the poor old 
tub : the carpenter's crew were busy stopping shot- 
holes in her sides, and on inquiry we heard the sad 
news — " Two men killed and one wounded." 

Disappointed in our expectation of seeing the 
ships go in, we bore up for the mud battery, which 
had been taken on the 8th by the "Amphion" and 
" Phlegethon ; " and heaving tlie " Pet " to, with 
Mr. Peter to attend to her, we rowed ashore with 
Ned, — and a splendid scene of havoc we found. The 
mud embankment was ripped up, torn, and almost 



THE SIEGE. 97 

levelled by the frigates* fire. The guns upset and 
dismounted : one with its great thirsty throat gaping 
upward at the sky, another in shame and confusion 
nozzling its head into the dirt. In oUe of them the 
shot was not rammed home, but remained as the 
terrified gunner left it in his hastd, about half-way 
down the barrel. With some little difficulty we got 
it out, and brought it home as a memento. It is a 
32-pounder, and having been overheated, is as rough 
as a broken brick. Another gun had some splinters 
of a shell and a lot of little stones in it. This was 
the place where Captain Pelham afterwards estab- 
lished his 10-inch gun, and which is called Pelham 
battery in Mr. Brierly's drawing : it is about 1000 
yards from the Half-moon battery, and close to the 
water. 

We had now been here quite long enough for such 
close proximity ; and on looking to the "Pet "we 
found that Mr. Peter was allowing her to drift 
serenely right under the guns of the Half-moon, so 
we got aboard and brought up close to the Bull- 
dog rock. 

The next day, as nothing very important was 



98 LOG OF THE " PET." 

going on, we got under way, and went down the 
channel in search of fresh provisions and water. 
About two miles from the roads we discovered a 
likely looking homestead, and bringing up the 
"Pet," we went ashore all hands, except Peter, to 
try our luck. On approaching the house, which was 
bright red, with a flagstaff in front, and had a nasty 
government cut about it, we saw a whole fleet of 
women with their booms topped and all their kites 
flying scudding off to ihe rear ; it was well however 
to take some precautions, so I, equipped with a 
marlin-spike and formidable looking spy-glass, ad- 
vanced to the front. My brother, a little to the 
right, and Ned, armed to the teeth with a tobacco- 
pipe, a little tp the left, kept a bright look-out to pre- 
vent our rear being intercepted. As we approached 
a mild-looking man appeared signalising friendship 
vigorously. We immediately proceeded to fraternise, 
and advanced into his dwelling, my friend, however, 
regarding my glass with much suspicion. 

Having regaled me with schnaps and sour milk, 
which I smuggled past my lips somehow, he pro- 
ceeded to recall his affrighted womankind, who came 



THE SIEGE. 99 

flapping in with their broad naked feet, and imme- 
diately proceeded to pass from a state of alarm and 
dismay into one of the utmost kindness and 
familiarity. One was an elderly lady, rather daric 
in complexion, and very leathery about the gills ; 
she was followed by another old dame, who very 
evidently was a lady of the cow-keeping persuasion; 
she resembled the first .very strongly, but was more 
odorous. Next came three demoiselles — bare-footed, 
flat-ribbed, red-legged, giggling young ladies, with 
coarse features, but beautiful fair hair, which they 
wore long and dishevelled about their shoulders- 
But for a nervous twitchy way they had of con- 
tinually calling upon their fair fingers to perform 
the functions of a comb, this hair would have been 
very charming. 

These young persons received my advances with 
native innocence, occasionally bursting into sputter- 
ing laughs, and whispering and tickling each other 
in a comer. 

While this was going on I reconnoitred the apart- 



ment, wishing to know how a respectable Aland 

farmer lives. 

H 2 



100 LOO OF THE "pet." 

It was a spacious room, adorned here and there 
with rough carvipg on the beams and doorposts. 
Three tiers of beds, resembling the bunks in a ship, 
formed one side of the apartment. Here it seemed 
from the number of these couches the whole genera- 
tion, man, woman, and child, must have reposed ; 
an arrangement indicating certainly an accommo- 
dating and sociable disposition. 

Clusters of insects of the parasitic order swarmed 
about the walls and comers, and to my confusion, I 
beheld five active specimens of the race playing 
leapfrog on my sleeve, while a more portly variety 
was leisurely waddling down the front of my shirt. 

This was notice to quit, and having secured some 
new milk, quite fresh and clean out of a cow, I beat 
my retreat, glad enough to escape from the warm 
and pungent stench that pervaded the house and all 
that dwelt therein. I also carried off a pair or two 
of wild ducks and a pike, and got a promise of a 
calf on a future occasion. What else we carried off 
it is needless to record, at all events it sufficed to 
deter us from returning to claim the fulfilment of 
the promise. 



THE SIEGE. 101 

Tliis evening we shifted our berth, and brought up 
further to the westward, close in with the shore, and 
just opposite one of the French landing-places and 
smaller camps, so that we had always a lively and 
amusing scene before us without leaving the vesseL 

The enemy kept chucking hot shot about this 
evening, but it was impossible to make out what he 
was firing at, for the shot came plunging into the 
sea about two hundred yards from us, but quite out 
of the track of everything alive, save the eels that 
wriggle about the slimy depths of Lumpar Bay. 

In the course of this night I think it was that a 
musketry affair occurred, in which a French captain 
was killed. I was told also by a corporal of marines 
that a dozen or two of them, with, I think, some 
Frenchmen in company, crept close up to Fort 
Tzee, where in the bright northern night they made 
out some half a hundred Bussians standing outside, 
chattering and vociferating after their manner. The 
marines let drive into them at about sixty paces, 
and my friend told me that the yell which followed 
the discharge was frightful. They saw the Bussians 
afterwards dragging wounded men into the fort. 



102 LOG OF THE " PET.'* 

We had now been here five days, but no event of 
importance had occurred. On Sunday (the 13th), 
however, a heavy cannonade began at daybreak, and 
the news reached us that the French had at length 
got theur guns into position, and were hammering at 
Fort Tzee at 400 yards. 

My brother was oflf soon after dawn, and secured 
an excellent position among the French sharp- 
shooters, where he got a capital view of everything. 
I followed soon after, and quickly came into view of 
the fort, which was blazing away pretty briskly. 
On reaching the first French encampment, an officer 
came forward and told me that the enemy had fired 
several shots right into their tents. I hoped no loss 
had occurred. " Si, si," he answered, shaking his 
head. A little further was a meadow skirting a 
large firesh-water pool, and beyond this meadow was 
the French battery, now in full play. 

The meadow was directly in the track of the shot 
which the enemy occasionally sent on speculation 
towards the camp, and also of those which they 
invariably sent too high for the battery. In crossing 
this ground, of course one made up one's mind on 



THE SIEGE. 108 

no account to move with unseemly speed, and to 
preserve the utmost perpendicularity, not wishing to 
be quizzed by our mirthful allies. About the middle 
of the field, however, I met two pretty little 
vivandi^res, chattering away as usual, and while 
pausing to ask a question and exchange a greeting 
with them, down came a shot pretty close, and away 
scuttled the ladies towards the nearest shelter, 
making the rocks ring with their laughter. The 
French had four brass field-pieces, one 18-pounder, 
and a howitzer or two, and it was very pretty to see 
their shot crash against ihe embrasures, shot after 
shot frequently hitting exactly in the same spot ; 
but their metal was too light, and made little im- 
pression on the hard granite. 

The Eussians replied with 18-pounders, but either 
because the guns could not be depressed, or from 
bad gunnery, every shot went over too high, and to 
the left. I got up to the left behind a large boulder, 
where a marine and two Frenchmen were stationed, 
who told me that the shot always took the same 
track, and they felt perfectly safe within a few feet 
of their course. Certainly while I was there every 



104 

shot went wide of the French battery, but straight 
towards a little haystack in the rear, upon which 
some of the country people had stuck a pole as a 
guide for the Eussians. 

From this position all that was going on was very 
visible : the long shots at the camp, the fire of the 
French, the roar of the bruta fulmina which the 
enemy hiurled at them, the incessant popping of the 
French skirmishers skulking behind every rock, 
the hurly-burly of the shells passing to the left for 
the benefit of the blue-jackets, and the crashing 
report of their explosion in the valley beyond, made 
a battue on a grand scale. The enemy made two 
good shots this morning : with one they scuttled a 
windmill in the middle of the French camp, behind 
which a number of troops were crouching; with 
another (as I was informed) they blew up an 
ammunition-box, and sent an unfortunate gunner 
flying all piecemeal into the air. 

On the whole, however, their gunnery was a 
decided failure from first to last. 

After spending about an hour in this position, I 
went through the English camp, which lay to the 



THE «IEGE. 105 

left, and a little to the rear of the French battery, 
up to the place from which we had formerly recon- 
noitred the forts. This had been chosen as the 
position for our battery which was to attack Fort 
Nottich, which, as has been stated, stood low and 
close to the water to the northward of the Sound. 

The rough path was smoothed with fascines and 
turf, and already four guns and a quantity of sand- 
bags, shot, gabions, and various munitions had been 
moved up. As I went on, a shell burst overhead 
with a report that shook tlie woods, and the splinters 
came pattering down ; a little further a naval ofiBcer, 
posted in a little hut behind a rock, warned me to 
get forward, as the place was in the track of a shell 
which came every five minutes. A hundred yards 
further was a picquet of some twenty or thirty men 
ensconced behind some sandbags. Here I found 
some officers, and we had a grand luncheon on ship 
biscuits and some of the imperial sherry. Nothing 
but pigeon pies and young ladies were wanted to 
make tlie pic-nic party complete. 

After a time I got permission to move on to the 
front, where a lot of our marines were thrown out as 



TIIE SIEGE. 107 

my Mends the artillerjrmen ; they jumped up to fill 
their cans, and the white bands of their caps were 
not lost upon the foe. The next dose they gave us 
was spherical case, which rattled right in among us. 
We heard them come singing along with their 
ominous tenor voices, and we wriggled ourselves 
and flinched into our holes as they passed ; one took 
off a bit of fir within six inches of my nose, another 
almost grazed the cap of my friend the marine. 

This was the closest shave — ^the next time they 
had lost the range ; but it was a shell, and seemed 
to burst close to the picquet. Our men had strict 
orders not to fire on any account, but if the enemy 
came out, to receive him with cold steel ; but my 
friend remarked, "If I sees anything gray I think 
I must have a crack, for I should like to shoot one 
on 'em, if 'twas only just one, Sir." 

On returning to the picquet I found a number of 
our great sturdy fellows striding up manfully each 
with a sandbag on his shoulders ; these were followed 
by a party of French similarly laden, smart active 
little fellows, but they tottered with their load. 

Just at that moment a shell burst close to us, and 



108 LOG OP THE "pet." 

an unlucky splinter tore open one poor Frenchman's 
throat; it was an ugly-looking slit but not dangerous, 
and he was taken down to our camp, where he was 
properly doctored and put to rights. 

On returning to the French battery, I was just in 
time to hear a general burst of surprise and satisfac- 
tion, and to see a dirty shirt or some other substitute 
for a drapeau blanc hung out of an embrasure on 
Fort Tzee. 

No perceptible damage of consequence had been 
done to the tower, and it seemed a queer proceeding. 
Presently, a well mounted French aide-de-camp 
dashed by, and soon the report was spread that 
the enemy wanted an hour's armistice in order " to 
put things to rights." 

This original request met with such an answer as 
might be expected, and hostilities began again. 

In the mean time a number of English naval 
officers had got close up to the fort, where they 
were civilly warned off by a Russian officer, and 
reluctantly returned. There is little more to say of 
this part of the proceeding, which began to grow 
monotonous. It was pretty to see the French shells 



THE SIEGE. 109 

mount up like huge cricket balls and drop on or 
near the place, and twice when they pierced the roof 
before they burst, and then blew two huge plates of 
iron and a great black cloud of smoke and rubbish 
liigh into the air, a buzz of applause was raised from 
all the surrounding camps, but the metal was too 
light, and no real harm was done. As the sun set 
the firing ceased, and we retired to our respective 
nests ; my brother turned up about dark, in high 
delight at what he had seen. He had been with 
the French sharpshooters all day, and had got close 
up to the fort. 

Every one was impatient at the little progress 
made by the French battery in cannonading the 
' tower, and one of our marine oflScers had volunteered 
to take a party of his men in the night and get in 
somehow ; but this tower was to be kept entirely as 
a bonne louche for the French, and accordingly, 
about midnight, a French storming-party went up. 

Only one man of the garrison was found faithful 
to his post. This was the veteran commandant, 
who was found mounting guard at the embrasure, 
where he received the attacking-party at the point 



110 LOG OF THE " PET/' 

of the sword. A thrust from a Frenchman's bayonet 
sent him to the earth and the place was taken. The 
cowardly garrison had decamped with the exception 
of some thirty men and the Medico, who were found 
dnmk and helpless amid the probrosis minis of the 
fort. 

The place itself had sustained little real injury, 
but words can scarcely describe the disgraceful 
scene of filth and confusion which the captured 
fortress exhibited. Gunpowder, cartridges, spirit 
tubs, broken accoutrements, tubs of salted fish, 
bread, salt, and filthy garments, with here and there 
a crucifix, tossed about among disgusting bedding, 
and in one or two places a ghastly corpse. All 
these things were jumbled together in horrid and 
disgusting intermixture, and the vile Bussian odour 
united with such extraneous compounds, was almost 
intolerable. 

The fatal effects of the rifle were very plain. The 
edges of the embrasures, the face of the wall to the 
rear of the gun, the gun carriage, and the piece 
itself, were dotted all over with the marks of the 
Mini6 bullet. No wonder that their fire was so 



THE SIEGE. Ill 

unsteady; nothing, probably, but drink kept the 
men to their guns, and the old maxim in vino Veritas 
will scarcely apply to the direction or elevation of 
a gun. 

On the whole, our respect for our enemy was not 
much increased by a visit to the fortress, and there 
can be no doubt that if it had been decently 
defended by its cowardly drunken garrison, the 
French could never have forced their way as they 
did into an entire and uninjured stone building, 
through a single embrasure some six feet from the 
ground. 

All honour to the brave old soldier who, deserted 
by his men, and well knowing his fate, stood firmly 
awaiting the enemy through the still hours of the 
summer night, and rather than betray his trust, 
preferred to dye the Frenchman's bayonet with the 
blood of a brave and loyal soldier. 

The poor old fellow's wife was in the upper part 
of the tower, and accompanied her wounded lord to 
a British transport, tl\e unfortunate " Prince," where 
they were treated of course with all kindness. Two 
days afterwards I heard a favourable report, and I 



112 LOG OF THE " TKT." 

heartily hope he recovered, but the Frenclunan, wlio 
was strutting about in high glee with the captured 
sword, showed me his bayonet, and it was stained 
with blood to the muzzle of the gun. 

Outside the fort numbers of French were lounging 
about, a few EngUsh officers also had arrived, and 
an active and pert little London artist* was aiTanging 
his drawing apparatus as much at 'ome as if he had 
been at Tde Park or 'Ampstead *Eath. 

This time Ned had accompanied us laden with a 
basket of provisions, or, as he would call it, 
"Tommy," witliout a supply of which one soon 
gets tired of wandering about hills and rocks under 
the scorching rays of the Baltic sun ; but Ned, who 
was bold enough at sea, did not seem to approve 
the sound of the rifle bullets which the Russians in 
Fort Nottich sent whistling up on speculation ; and 
further down, when we encountered a gun coming 
over the roughest ground, we clapped on to the tow- 
rope to give them a pull, and on a sudden a shell 
came over close to us and astonished him a good few ^ 
as he expressed it. 

* Not Mr. Brierley, who is neither little nor pert, nor anything of 
the sort. 



THE SIEGE. 113 

But now the report of heavy guns from the sea 
put us all on the qtii vive ; it continued, and was 
replied to from the Half-moon. 

We had left the "Pet" close in shore near Pelham 

Battery, so we lost no time in hurrying down, 

stopping, however, to forage a bushel of potatoes, ^ 

which the natives refused us as in duty bound, but 

which we dug up with our fingers and paid for 

honestly before we went. Oh arriving at the shore, 

we found " Amphion " and the Half-moon hammering 

merrily at each other, and a brisk breeze blowing 

dead on shore. The "Amphion" was close to the 

Bulldog rock, and in working off it was necessary 

for us to stand in almost between the ship and the 

fort, and here I missed poor Shelley, for my crew 

got so excited and delighted whenever the Amphion's 

shot got well home, that I could not get the sails 

tended so smartly as I wished; however, we managed 

better than a little light merchant brig with two 

man-of-war's boats towing, which ran ashore on the 

rock well within range, but unmolested by the 

If 
enemy. 

" Amphion " fired beautifully, and it was clear 



114 LOG OP THE "pet." 

enough that half-a-dozen Amphions placed a little 
nearer would have rendered the presence of our 
gallant allies entirely unnecessary. 

The next, morning, Tuesday the 15th, the row 
began in earnest; at daybreak, Captain Pelham 
with his blue-jackets opened fire with effect from a 
10-inch gun mounted on the old Kussian mud fort, 
now sumamed Pelham Battery. His gun bore full 
upon the left or west front of the Half-moon, and 
played upon the junction of the wall and the roof, 
where it soon established a raw. At the same time 
the engmeers, blue-jackets, and marines ashore 
opened from their sandbag battery upon Fort 
Nottich, and it was not long before avalanches of 
stones, rubbish, and dirt tumbling from the tower, 
acknowledged the force and precision of their 
arguments. 

Soon after breakfast, the " Amphion," which had 
never quitted the position where she had fought last 
night, opened upon tlie Half-moon, and the ships 
began leisurely to creep in to her support. 
"Asmod6e," "Phlegethon," and two other French- 
men, and on our part the dashing little "Hecla," the 



THE SIEGE. 115 

"Valorous," " Sphynx," " Driver," "Arrogant," and 
/* Bulldog," moved in to take part in the fray. 

The ships fired single guns, perhaps each vessel 
one or two in a minute, and the Bussians replied , 
as quickly as they could work their guns. And 
now at length the mystery was at an end, the secret 
was out; the enemy fired hot shot, cold shot, 
hollow shot, and shell at the devoted ships ; hut, 
somehow, they did not catch fire or go to the* 
bottom, their spars did not come tumbling down, 
nor did shells burst on board and send the whole 
crew in fragments to the skies. 

As far as this place was concerned, the stone-wall 
bubble was burst and blown up for ever. No 
sooner did a Eussian gun open than bang went a 
round shot against the embrasure, and sent dust 
and splinters to keep company with smoke and 
stench in the casemates of the foe. A fine crop of 
measly spots soon came out all over the face of the 
building, but what was far more important, em- 
brasures began to approach each other in more 
loving contiguity, and a promising little infant of a 

hole began to show opposite the Pelham gun, and 

I 2 



116 LOO OP THE "pet." 

another in front of the "Amphion," which bid 
fair in time to ripen into a pair of fuU-sized 
breaches. 

They were all hard at it, when suddenly, at noon, 
the whole fleet roared out a royal salute in honour 
of the emperor*8 birthday. The ships engaged, 
without ceasing to fire on the enemy, saluted with 
shotted guns, and the brightest colours flew gaily 
out in the merry breeze, which was blowing stinking 
smoke and burnt gunpowder, mingled with dust 
full into the eyes and nostrils of the over-matched 
and unhappy foe. This was turning war into a 
hoUday with a vengeance ; and, to crown the whole, 
Fort Tzee, the tower taken by the French, which 
had been on fire since the last afternoon, blew up 
with a thundering crash, and sent a jet of pitchy 
smoke and lurid flame high into the air. 

I must not forget to mention that H.M.S. 
" Edinburgh," bearing the flag of Admiral Chads, 
" Ajax," and two French ships, I believe " Darien " 
and " Duperrd," were also engaged, but at so great 
a distance, 2000 yards, that, except for experi- 
mental pui'poses, they were of no' use, and so far 



THE SIEGE. 117 

may be considered to have had little to do with the 
affair.* 

About 5 p.m., the ships knocked off for the 
evening ; some of them crept out a little distance, 
but ** Amphion ** and one or two others did not even 
pay the Bussian gunners this compliment, but 
remained quietly at their fighting moorings all night 

About 1 p.m., Fort Nottich hung out a drapeau 
blanc as a token of submission, and with our glasses 
we could make out a breach in the wall as big as a 
barn-door. 

This was a satisfactory day. Our marines and 
blue-jackets ashore had done their work brilliantly, 
and, with the exception of poor Wrottesley, they 
were very fortunate in escaping loss. Captain 
Pelham*s gun was the admiration of all ; and, when 
we heard that he had reported no casualty, our 
surprise was redoubled, for we had seen the enemy*s 
shot and shell all in among them. Two or three 
times the gun had ceased firing, apparently dis- 
mounted or injured, but had soon opened again ; and 

* Thifl must not be supposed to imply any reflection npon the 
officers or men of these ships ; they had no choice in the matter, and 
many of them were engaged ashore in the batteries. 



118 LOG OF THE " FELT." 

we an expected a Connidable list of killed and 
wounded. 

The ships were eqnaDj- fortimate; and it was 
now simply a question of time, unless the Bossian 
gmmers were to improTe soddenlj and immensely, 
or our own gnnners shoold be stmck by paralysis, 
we shoold see the stone bolwaiks cromble before 
the wooden walls, and then hnrrah for old En^and ! 

On Wednesday the 16th, Captain Pelham and his 
bloe-jackets opened the ball at dayli^t, and an- 
other gnn farther inland, which seemed a French 
field-piece, also gave tongne ; bnt it was past nine 
o'clock before the ships began again. 

It was a mere repetition of yesterday's action; but 
the French ships did not go in at all, and at midday 
the whole affair was brought to a close by the ap- 
pearance of the drapeau blanc, the only colour 
displayed by the enemy throughout. 

I confess the first feeling was disappointment: 
removed as the ships were from the scenes of blood 
and confusion which prevailed ashore, it seemed 
unsatisfactory that the game should not be played 
fairly out to its conclusion. 



THE SIEGE. 119 

We were soon ashore ; there was a strong wind, 
and we took the "Pet" close in to the battery 
harbour and landed at once. At first sight I could 
not understand what on earth made them surrender^ 
There was nothing like a breach at present, although 
there were two sore places where the face of the 
wall was gone, and where it was a matter of course 
that a breach must be made unless our fire could be 
silenced ; but, at all events^ there was no immediate 
necessity for a surrender. 

We passed into the fort, and there we saw a 
strange sordid crowd of convict-looking wretches in 
long workhouse drab coats, scrambling and huddling 
together in all the attitudes of drunken, senseless 
merriment. They tore off their imiform, they 
stamped on it and threw it in heaps, they sang, 
they laughed, and danced. One spoke to me in 
English; another, quite sober, asked me in good 
German, " Wo sollich die Kleider hinlegen ? *' Many 
were brawling together, and exchanging yells and 
heavy blows in their contests for a filthy sheepskin 
or a bundle of loathsome bed-clothes ; among these 
were many Jews. One fine-looking fellow, with a 



120 

black moustache} was a soldierlike and conspicuous 
figure; but the mass were not set up like soldiers, 
and showed no symptom of martial training ; little 
squeezy bald-headed old men, or raw loose-spun 
boys, they looked more like a herd of half-starved 
emigrants than the imperial troops of a great 
military power. 

A Russian soldier, so far as I have seen, differs 
widely from the type imputed to them in our 
prints and pictures. Their skin is white as a 
woman's, but cold and bloodless, their eyes blue and 
singularly soft and placid; the forehead low and 
unintelligent, the cheek-bones high and prominent, 
the lower part of the face beardless and angular. 
Their hair is cropped short, and they wear a forage- 
cap, and the everlasting drab bedgown of a great- 
coat down to their heels. 

" What do you think of our enemy ? " I said to a 
French sous-officier. 

" Canaille," he replied with a sneer. 

'* What shall we do with them ? " I asked again. 

" Fusilier," was his laconic answer. 

The interior of the Half-moon fort was a fine 



THE SIEGE. 121 

roomy court. Traces of shot and shell were visible 
on all sides, but no very serious injury could be 
seen ; in the middle of the courtyard was a heap of 
arms, helmets, and clothes, most of which were 
broken and damaged, and the French were already 
h^h busy picking up everything that seemed worth 
carrying off. We pillaged a couple of rough swords, 
and, leaving this scene of confusion, walked up by a 
capital road to Fort Nottich. Quantities of shot 
and several huge shells lay about on the road, and, 
among the rocks, flattened Mini6 bullets lay thick 
and white as manna upon the ground. 

The breach made by our marines, artillery, and 
blue-jackets in Fort Nottich was really a highly 
respectable performance; the hard granite had 
crumbled away befor^e the sturdy raps of our 18- 
pounders, and left a great yawning chasm, like 
Durdle Door in Dorsetshire, through which I could 
have sailed the " Pet " with her boom off if there had 
been water to float her. Mr. Brierly's drawing is 
perfectly faithful, and gives the best possible idea of 
the whole scene. 

We scrambled in and walked round the case- 



122 LOG OF THE " PET." 

mates, where French soldiers, blackguards from the 
trading ships, and one or two gentlemen, were 
wandering about ; some in search of money, others 
of a helmet, or some little memento of the place to 
take home. One little Frenchman we found, in an 
agony of excitement, contending with a little box 
that was firmly locked ; I got a firelock and smashed 
it in, and, behold, it contained — nothing. 

Soon after, we passed into a room which had a 
cold feeling about it; I was walking hastily on, 
when my brother called aloud ; I looked round, and 
saw, on the floor before, behind, and beside me, the 
cold, clean, silent forms of the dead. The shock of 
the surprise wa^ fearful ; the light linen cloths that 
shrouded the stiffened figures waved and flickered 
in the draught, as if stirred by the breath of those 
that would breathe no more. What did these poor 
fellows know or care about the Turkish question ? 
And yet they had fought and trembled, they had 
writhed in agony, they had yielded up the breath of 
life, and now father and brother, maid and mother, 
were weeping and breaking their hearts for them, 
and all about the Danubian Principalities. 



THE SIEGE. 128 

" Those," said my brother, as we hastened into 
the air, " are the first Russians that I have seen 
clean and sober yet." 

Soon afterwards we found a number of beautiful 
percussion muskets in excellent order; having 
secured one each as a prize, we left the fort and 
returned to the " Pet." 

By this time the prisoners had been marched out 
of the fort, and were collected under a strong guard 
of English marines and French infantry. It was 
strange to see the three nations thus brought to- 
gether. — The^English, bold, sturdy, and strong, like 
bulls of Basan, staring and gaping on the foe ; the 
French, small, active, and brisk, like horses of the 
desert; the Eussians (I am unwilling to speak 
slightingly of a vanquished foe, but it is the truth) 
like unclean animals, grunting, wallowing swine. 
Of course every allowance must be made for the 
humiliation of defeat, and for the fact that they 
were almost all more or less drunk; nor do I 
express any opinion about the Eussians of Alma or 
Inkermann, for I have not seen them; but these 
Eussians of Bomarsund were such as I have 



124 LOO OF THE " PET." 

described them. To conclude this disgusting subject, 
I shall only add, that of those that came under the 
care of our surgeons, almost all were covered with 
yermin ; and, in sailing through the fleet, we could 
always distinguish a ship that had prisoners on 
board, on passing to leeward — ^by the smell.* 

Such is the race that has swallowed up lands and 
nations in quick succession, and now threatens to 

* A reriewer alluded to in a former note is rather serere upon these 
reoiarks. My reply is, that I have related exactly what I saw. I may 
be mistaken in supposing that snch an exhibition of drunken mirth, 
under the circumstances, was discreditable. I am not mistaken in 
saying that such an exhibition took place. A writer in Blackwood, 
June, 1855, has described the scene nearly in the words which I have 



Of eourse a civilian's remarks on such matters can Lave no value 
except as evidence, and a civilian's log would be simple waste paper 
if he were to write according to preconceived opinions of Bussian 
courage^ discipline, and soldier-like demeanour, instead of relaUog 
exactly what he saw. For my part, I have seen every European army 
north of the Alps. I have seen the Badish revolutionary forces, con- 
sisting of renegade soldiers, students and volunteers, in full flight 
before the Prussians ; I have seen Swiss irregular soldiers turned out 
hastily ^om their homes to meet the enemy ; but I never saw such an 
unsoldierlike display as that aiforded by the garrison of Bomarsund. 

As regards the charge of want of cleanliness, a letter published in 
the "Times" by the commander of the "Belleisle," states that the 
clothes of all the prisoners brought on board were full of vermin ; and 
some helmets now before me, the cleanest we could choose out of very 
many, are perfectly filthy : even now, in January, 185<J, they have not 
yet lost their sickening smell. 



THE SIEGE. Id5 

overwhelm the fairer lands and the nobler races of 
Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. 

We passed under the jetty where the prisoners 
were being embarked. On the top was a strapping 
French sous-officier, drunk, and greatly excited : on 
the groimd, and between his feet, lay a Eussian 
prisoner, bound hand and foot. The Frenchman, 
with his drawn sword, was making passes at the 
throat of the poor wretch with all the neck-or- 
nothing precision of a drunken man, at the same 
time assailing him with the epithets brigand^ 
sc^Uraty and every other invective of his voca-- 
bulary. It was piteous to see the poor victim's 
white, womanish, imploring hands raised, fettered 
as they were, to plead for mercy. It was a horrid 
sight. Mr. Chads, an English naval officer, rushed 
in and interfered, a French officer came to the 
rescue, and the man was saved for the time ; but he 
had been caught trying to blow up the magazine 
after the capitulation, and they hanged him the next 
day. At least, so I was informed. 

The French general, Baraguay d'Hilliers, with 
his staff, met the admirals at the gate of the Fort. 



126 LOG OF THE " PET." 

He looked every inch a soldier and a gentleman. 
He is a noble, tall, gray-haired veteran with one 
arm, upright as a pine, and keen and polished as his 
sword. Admiral Sir Charles Napier on this occasion 
wore a round long-shore hat, Admiral Chads was 
attired in a round jacket ; and it was a very dusty day. 

As regards the generalship of the afiGair, it is not 
for a civilian to criticise the measures of men of 
tried courage and of great experience ; besides it 
must be confessed by the most vehement detractor, 
that as the French were there it would have been 
ridiculous, and on all accounts extremely unwise, 
not to employ them; at the same time, it cannot 
be denied that we took a very big wheel to break 
a very little fly upon, which after all our boasting 
was not perhaps very creditable. 

I have also heard it stated repeatedly, that the 
ships had nothing to do with the affair ; and, indeed, 
Bomarsund has been adduced as an instance to 
prove that ships are useless when opposed to 
batteries. 

The history of the affair I .believe was this : — 
The fortifications consisted of three round towers 



THE SIEG6. 127 

and one half-moon battery, which alone mounted 
nearly a hundred guns. One of the towers, Fort 
Tzee, was cannonaded by the French from the 
shore all day without much eSect; they took it 
the same night by assault, the garrison having 
deserted it. The second tower, Fort Nottich, was 
cannonaded at daybreak on the 15th by the British 
marines and blue-jackets with heavier metal, was 
breached effectually, and surrendered early in the 
afternoon. The third tower. Fort Presto, surren- 
dered almost uninjured at the capitulation. 

The large fort was pounded by the ships " Am- 
phion," "Hecla," "Valorous," "Driver," "Sphynx," 
"BuUdog,'' " Arrogant," N "Edinburgh," "Ajax," 
"Asmod^e," " Phlegethon," "Duperr^," "Darien," 
and two other French vessels, (and also by Captain 
Pelham's gun) for about nine hours on the 15 th, 
and by a part of the same squadron during a few 
hours of the 14th and 16th. 

The result was that the ships sustained no injury, 
while the fort was considerably damaged, though 
not to an extent requiring or justifying a surrender. 
It must be added that the line-of-battle ships 



128 

were so distant that their fire had very little 
effect. 

I have since heard that a shell thrown from the 
little *' Cuckoo/' at a reasonable distance, did 
more execution than all the weight of projectiles 
hurled from the batteries of the " Edinburgh." 

Sir Howard Douglas has appended to his last 
edition a comment upon these proceedings, think- 
ing it " of very great importance that the facts 
of the case should be rightly understood.** He 
asserts, nevertheless, that "the forts were breached,'* 
whereas one only was breached, and that was Fort 
Nottich, by the fire of the British battery manned 
by seamen and marines ; and although, as he states, 
the firing of the "Edinburgh** was unsatisfactory 
from her too great distance, the same remark does 
not apply to the firing of the frigates, French and 
English, which were within range. 

Sir Howard is led to the conclusion that the 
place was isiken by the land attack under Marshal 
Baraguay d*Hilliers, and the skilful engineers, 
General Harry Jones, and General Niel, and he 
implies, that they could have taken it without the 



THE SIEGE. 1529 

ships ; .but the ships, nnaided by the army, would 
not have succeeded without severe damage. 

The facts of the case, however, are so obvious, 
tliat it does not require the science or experi- 
ence of Sir Howard Douglas to perceive that the 
garrison, weak in number and bad in quality, was 
entirely overmatched. The army without the ships 
could have eaten them up, and the ships, unaided 
by the army, must have crumbled the fort about 
their ears, because the battery could not, and did 
not, damage the ships, while the ships — at least, 
those who were permitted to go near enough — 
could and did damage the fort. 

As regards Bomarsund, the stone wall panic 
was proved to be entirely a delusion ; the issue of 
a contest between an active and powerful screw 
squadron^ with top-gallant masts and yards, and 
all top hamper on deck, led promptly into close 
action with strong stone forts, manned by a good 
and sufficient garrison, is a question upon which 
the affair at Bomarsund has very little bearing. 

The defence was evidently 'conducted with a view 
rather to make a deceht show of resistance, and 



130 LOG OF THE " PET.*' 

to satisfy the requirements of military honour, 
than with the hope and resolution to effect any 
useful object. Actions conducted in such a spirit 
have never been known to end in success. The 
Russians completely overmatched might have sur- 
rendered without a blow and without disgrace. 
Having once engaged, they should not have 
surrendered as they did. It was a capital error 
to allow our ships to pass unmolested through 
the narrow channel that winds among the woods 
and rocks between Led Sound and Lumpar Bay. 
It was a signal disgrace to abandon Fort Tzee — 
indeed the conduct of the brave old oflBicer in 
command is in itself a sufficient censure upon 
that of the garrison. The surrender of Fort 
Nottich was perhaps unavoidable, but the final 
capitulation of the principal fortress was at all 
events premature. 

From our own experience I should say that 
the climate of the i Aland Isles has been much 
misrepresented. Certainly, many indications of 
severe cold in winter might be seen : the pine- 
branches still drooped in August from their last 



THE SIEGE. 131 

winter's burden of snow. The peasants* houses are 
built with thin wooden walls, much like the chdlets 
in Switzerland, but large stoves and huge stores of 
fire-wood told their tale of piercing frosts and inac- 
cessible woods, while the prevailing system of 
sleeping all hands tier over tier in the same apart- 
ment doubtless conduces to much genial warmth 
and sociable enjoyment during the long dark nights 
of winter. 

The changes of the seasons are accompanied by 
gales of wind, fogs, and heavy rains, but during the 
summer, bright sunshine lights up the red granite 
rocks, and renders the cool shade of the forest 
delightful, while every day a pleasant breeze ripples 
the waters of these sheltered bays and channels. 

During the time the fleet was there, no weather 
could have been pleasanter, or better suited for 
naval or military operations, still the Baltic air 
seems tainted with cholera. The French and the 
prisoners died in great numbers ; the sailors, espe- 
cially our own, fared better; but few ships* com- 
panies of any kind have visited the Baltic, during 
the last few years, without suffering in some degree 

K 2 



132 LOO OF THE **PET." 

from the symptoms of the pest ; and to eyeiy army 
congregated in numbers on the shore, the pestilence 
that walketh in darkness is more to be dreaded than 
the arrow or the ballet that flieth in the noon-day. 

The strength of the fortress, as it stood in 1854, 
has probably been mnch over-estimated, but the 
importance it derived from its geographical position, 
appears scarcely to have been appreciated as it 
deserves. It commands the Gulfs of Bothnia, Fin- 
land, and Biga, overawes Stockholm, and threatens 
the whole Baltic. The unfortified island of Gott- 
land, with its two excellent havens, and, lower 
down, the Ertholm rocks, and the Danish island 
of Bomholm, are so many stepping-stones to 
Copenhagen, and the keys of the Baltic, and the 
intervals of sea that separate them would be 
scarcely too wide for the seven-league strides of 
Bussian power and influence. 

As a single unit in a number of brilliant enter- 
prises, the capture of Bomarsund would have been 
recorded with high praise and congratulation ; as 
the sum total of a naval campaign, and especially 
when compared with the presumptuous boasting 



THE SIEGE. 138 

that inaugurated the undertaking, it appears in- 
sufiBicient. 

For us it was quite a holiday campaign, the 
ships dressed in their colours, and with their bands 
playing, floated securely in a roadstead as safe as 
Bampool. Gigs dashed rapidly from ship to ship, 
and smart little pleasure-boats, manned by ofiBicers, 
rowed merrily about. Four English yachts, " Esme- 
ralda," " Mavis," " Foam," and last and least, the 
" Pet," had borne their owners to this unfrequented 
retreat. The " Sparrow Hawk " cutter, and two or 
three traders, supplied French brandy and Dublin 
porter to all thirsty souls. Officers on leave from 
Ledsund, and gentlemen from the yachts, bivouacked 
and picknicked within haif of the Bussian forts, 
and scarcely one horrid sight of death or suffering 
on our side disturbed the bright pageantry of war. 
With the enemy it was otherwise. In squalid dirt 
and stench, and drunkenness, choked with smoke 
and dust, in the face of an enemy every way si^pe- 
rior, with a Frenchman (so it was said. Gen. 
Bodisco), whose faith they suspected, for a chief, 
they fought the unequal contest. 



184 LOG OP THE "pet." 

I have purposely omitted many particulars re- 
lating to the capture of the forts at Bomarsund, 
because it is not my object to compile from news- 
papers a full history of the affair, but rather to give 
a statement of what we ourselves saw and heard. 

It is therefore quite unnecessary to enter into 
any discussion upon the performances of the Baltic 
fleet; at the same time it would have been scarcely 
a fair narrative of what occurred, if I had abstained 
from all mention of the criticisms and lamentations 
which we heard on all sides. 

Doubtless I may have been guilty of inaccuracies 
in matters of detail, for I have referred to no docu- 
ments except my own log ; but, on the whole, the 
account I have given will* I think, be found faithful. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

HOMEWARD-BOUND. 

** Then as adTanoe the shades of night. 
Long-plumed she takes her homeward flight.*' 

There is a charm in the sound of the word 
" Home," and much as we had enjoyed our cruise, 
especially the days we had passed with the fleet, 
still the anchor came up merrily, and the sails were - 
hoisted smartly and cheerily, when the word 
" Homeward-bound " was given. 

The " Sparrow Hawk," ourselves, and a pilot- 
schooner, built in imitation of the celebrated '^Ame- 
rica," whose master swaggered very heavily about 
her sailiDg, were in company, and we all set to 
work to turn to windward down the narrows in 
complete regatta fashion. In- this cramped navi- 
gation, of course the " Pet " soon took the lead, and 
was fast leaving her competitors to leeward, when 
suddenly she hove to, and away went her boat for 



136 LOG OF THE " PET." 

the shore. Soon after up came " Sparrow Hawk/* 
and the same mysterious attraction brought her to 
the wind and sent her boat at top speed on the 
same errand ; nor could the pilot schooner resist 
the temptation, but in a few minutes all the boats' 
crews were seen running, jumping, and scrambling 
over the rocks in chase of some dozen black and 
piebald sheep, that had been seen peacefully crop- 
ping the scanty herbage. 

This bit of diversion over, the sun began to 
decline, and we sought an anchorage under the lee 
of a little stony island that reminded us of the west 
of Scotland. 

About a mile to the westward lay a French 
frigate, guarding the entrance, and soon the mea- 
sured plash of oars was heard, and we saw a French 
man-of-war's boat rowing by us. In her stem- 
sheets sat a priest in full canonicals, who was 
escorting the body of a seaman to his last resting- 
place on this wild and lonely shore. 

It was an event that harmonised well with the sad 
and desolate scene : the utter hopeless solitude of 
the barren isle, so far from la belle France, the 



HOBfEWABD-BOUND. 187 

rocky, inhospitable sea, stretching away to the east- 
ward, the dark and threatening sky, were all clad in 
sombre black, as if in honour of the poor stranger's 
burial. This funeral scene reminds me of a little 
lonely sepulchre which we found in one of our 
wanderings on one of these islands. It was a 
sheltered little green glade, close to the shore of the 
restless open sea ; above, a dark pine with down- 
ward branches, like a weeping ash ; and below, a 
little wooden cross, inscribed with the words, " Gott 
sey Dir gnadig, oh meine Wonne." On a stone at 
the foot of the grave, some Swedish verses were 
rudely carved, of which this is a translation : — 

" Bright, bright, was the soft and tender light. 
Of her eye, 
And her smile^s vanescent play 
• Like some truant sunbeam's ray, 

Flitting by. . 

** Clear, clear, and passing sweet to hear. 

Was the sonnd, 
When her laugh's light melody, 
With quiet sparkling glee. 

Bang around. 

** Fleet, fleet, and oh ! too deadly sweet, 
Sped the hour, 
^en those looks I loyed to twine, 
Flowed interlaced with mine, 
In her bower. 



188 LOG OF THE " PET.*' 

'* Fold, fold, ber tenderly around, 
Thon tomb ! 
Cold, cold, lies the dank and sodden ground, 
In the gloom. 

^* Roll, roll, thy deep and solemn swell. 
Thou wave I 
Toll, toll, thy sad and endless knell 
O'er her grave," 

Even in this desolate, untrodden comer of the 
earth, the old oft-repeated story of love, sorrow, 
separation, and death, had been told pretty much as 
we are accustomed to tell it in more civilised lands. 
*' Please, Captain," said Peter the Dane, as we 
went below to tea, " have you got a chopper ? " 
" Yes, Peter. What do you want to chop ? " 
" My head vant to be chop, if Captain please." 
This was one of Ned's jokes. Another standing 
joke was, christening every pilot, or other native 
who came on board, by the name of Moses, to their 
gieat dudgeon and indignation. They were distin- 
guished as " This here Moses what's a standing by 
me, Sir." " That last Moses what came aboard at 
Copyhagy." " That wust Moses of the whole lot, 
what runned oflf with my baccy," &c. &c. 

The following day it blew a strong breeze from 



HOMEWARD-BOUND. 139 

the westward, and after working down to Ledsimd, 
and sailing through the fleet, we anchored under 
the lee of a little island where raspberries and black 
currants grew wild, and where a little unsuspecting 
bunting hopped fearlessly upon us as we lay idly 
upon the beach. In the evening we cruised among 
the ships, and saw the prisoners crowding together 
at the ports as we passed ; at the stem -windows of a 
line-of-battle ship sat a young Russian lady, sur- 
rounded by flowers and luxuries, like some pretty 
canary-bird in its glittering cage. 

After exchanging greetings with our friends in 
the "Acre," we bore up for a little sheltered creek, 
where we found the "Nimrod" transport, foun- 
dered, with the water just level with her upper 
deck. The crew and the troops were constructing 
hurricane houses on deck, and pitching tents 
ashore. 

We landed and went to a little native village, but 
every door was closed, and nothing living could be 
seen ; as we came off, we thought we had found a 
prize in a number of wild ducks that were hanging 
on a wall, but on taking them down, we found that 



140 LOG OF THE " PET." 

they were stuffed birds nailed upon little boards, to 
act as a decoy. 

The next morning we left the fleet, and sailed 
with a light northerly breeze for Sandhamn Inlet, 
the northern entrance to Stockholm; the breeze, 
which scarcely gave steerage way at noon, freshened 
as the sun declined, and a little before sunset, we 
were foaming through the water in fine style, carry- 
ing on her, in order to get up with the entrance 
before dark. At 6 p.m. we had run the Legskar 
lighthouse out of view, and a little before sunset an 
island hove in sight, and soon after two buildings 
were discovered answering to the description of the 
Korso and Gronskar lighthouses, which mark the 
entrance to Stockholm. Something, however, made 
me suspect we were not right, and we got her under 
a double-reefed main-sail before we stood in to 
reconnoitre. The directions in the Seaman's 
Guide are vague in the extreme, and seeing nothing 
of the inlet, we hove to, to see if the lights would 
show at sunset. Sunset came, but no lights, and it 
now seemed nearly certain that the buildings in 
question were beacons, and not lighthouses. The 



HOMEWARD-BOUND. 141 

night was dirty, and it was coming on to blow ; we 
were on a lee-shore, for the wind was getting 
easterly, and to crown all, on coming on deck after 
comparing the bearings with those on the chart, a 
huge rock, dorsum immane, bared its black and 
slimy back some hundred yards to leeward. 

This settled it. " Draw the fore-sail, sheet 
home the jib," and we stood out from the shore, 
and sought safety in the more friendly embrace of 
the dark, angry sea, and sullen, threatening sky. 

After having gained an offing, we got the main- 
sail down, set the try-sail, reefed fore-sail and storm- 
jib, and sent the little ship rolling away to leeward, 
with half a gale of wind under her tail. 

Presently, " quack, quack, quack,** sounded under 
our scuppers, as we actually ran down an unsus- 
picious duck sleeping comfortably on the sea. 

For a moment, amid the scud, I thought I could 
see the lights to leeward ; but in such a breeze and 
sea it would have been madness to approach an 
unknown lee-shore; besides, the strong, fair wind 
seemed too good to be neglected, and much as 
we wished to visit Stockholm, the nine days' 



142 LOG OP THE "pet." 

quarantine was a great drawback; and, altogether, 
we decided, though not without reluctance, to give 
up Stockholm and make the best of our way down 
the Baltic to Copenhagen. 

Before daybreak, however, the fair wind failed 
us, and we had a long and hard day's work thrash- 
ing to windward against a heavy sea and strong 
westerly wind, till about sunset we attained the 
friendly shelter of Gottland Isle. 

We passed a day at Wisby, a bad harbour, and 
now an unimportant place, but it was one of the 
Hanse towns, and formerly was the great depot for 
all Eastern goods in this part of the world. It was 
from this port that many of our Danish invaders 
sailed ; and I fancy if one could follow up the ety- 
mology of the word with certainty, it would lead to 
the conclusion that the Isle of Wight was colonised 
by Wisby men, or, at all events, by their kindred. 

Wisby is now chiefly interesting from the beau- 
tiful little fragments of early Gothic architecture 
which remain in its once splendid churches. Since 
the Reformation, they have been neglected and 
defaced, and are now almost entirely in ruins. 



HOMEWARD-BOUND. 143 

A good many troops, principally artillery, were 
quartered at Wisby — great big fellows, very supe- 
rior in appearance to their Bussian neighbours. 

We dined at an hotel, where we encountered a 
certain doctor whose name I forget, but he was very 
civil with his little scraps of English, and he sold 
us a great raw-boned biped of a turkey and one 
dozen little " kickens " for a shilling a pound. 

A number of Russian boats lay near us, the most 
wretched, hapless-looking craft I ever saw — open 
boats about six or seven tons, with narrow flat 
floors and flat sides, rigged with a comical sort of 
square sail, which they reefed and furled with 
repOpCoiSy after the manners and customs of the 
ancient Greeks. They were freighted with sugar, 
cofliee, and salt, and belonged to Oesel and Dago. 
Their wares were stowed on straw in the middle 
of the boat, and covered with a tarpaulin, while the 
safety of the whole was centred in a huge pump 
like those we employ in our stable-yards. The 
rudder of one was secured with osier-bands, the 
others with rope. The men were as uncouth as 
their vessels were rude. Clad in untanned sheep- 



144 

skins, which they wore like some hero of whom I 
have read in Irish mythology, " the rough side out, 
and the woolly side in," their trousers tucked 
into their boots, and their matted and unkempt 
hair hanging Medusa-like about their necks and 
shoulders, they presented a most uncomfortable 
appearance. 

I saw two of them come down the wind to a well, 
where a number of Swedish girls were collected 
with their pails and pitchers, chatting and laughing 
after their manner. 

When the Bussians approached, and the women 
got wind of them, it was most absurd to see them 
clutching their nostrils desperately, with many 
gestures of disgust, and scudding away with their 
sheets well off, till they had overrun the scent, and 
got into a place of safety, where they immediately 
indulged themselves in a scream of laughter and 
derision. The Russian smell is a foul, sickening 
odour. After one has had a strong dose or two of 
it, the very scent of a Russian-leather purse or 
book is disgusting, so offensive are the associations 
it suggests. 



HOMEWARD-BOTJND. 145 

We sailed the same evening for Carlskrona, k 
distance of abont 120 miles, but the i^ind was 
contrary and blew hard. We made the best of our 
way, splashing through the short troublesome seas, 
with three reefs in our main-sail ; we passed a steam 
sloop towing a line-of-battle ship with prisoners ; 
but it was not till after dark on Wednesday night 
that we found ourselves off the Utklippome light- 
house, at the entrance to Garlskrona; here we 
remained till daylight, in a heavy sea and strong 
wind. Peter, the Danish sailor, let the try-sail gaff 
overboard, to the great disgust of Ned, who could 
not conceal his sincere disappointment that Moses 
had not gone overboard instead of the spar. 

The same night, in reaching in to get a berth 
nearer the light, the hook of the weather bowsprit- 
shroud broke with a report like a pistol, and nearly 
lost us the spar. After replacing the hook, it was 
necessary to go out and hook it on. The sea was 
very heavy, and at every pitch the bowsprit plunged 
under water and jumped up again with a spring 
like a fishing-rod. I went below to make prepara- 
tions for a ducking, and on my return I found that 



146 LOa OP THE *'PET." 

Ned, in the pluckiest manner, had gone out between 
two seas and hooked it on successfully. An hour 
after, I had the same duty to perform to the top- 
mast-stay, but I was scarcely so lucky, for, as I had 
to remain at the end of the spar till I had clapped 
on a seizing, I did not escape without two or three 
duckings in real merses profundo style ; as to the 
pulchrior evenit of the poet, it was as dark as 
pitch, and so long as we both got safe back, we 
were well content to neglect appearances for the 
present. 

In the morning it was blowing something like a 
gale, and the heavy tumbling seas had more than 
half a mind to break as they chased each other and 
stumbled over the rocky ground. We had about 
five miles to beat before weathering the outer rocks 
which guard the entrance. I could scarcely sup- 
pose it possible that a craft could get to windward 
through such a broken sea; but the little "Pet" 
did it manfully. As we approached the dreary, for- 
bidding Swedish coast,. I could not help feeling 
mortally anxious lest a rope, a block, or a spar 
ghould break with the strain, and the poor little 



HOMEWABD-BOUND. 147 

craft, crippled and maimed, should drift upon the 
horrid rocks to leeward. However, all held on^ and 
at last we bore up round the reef, and laid her head 
north for Carlskrona ; but now our greatest difficulty 
began, for the passage is studded with rocks, and in . 
the haze and scud of the gale the trumpery little 
poles which the Swedes use for buoys were entirely 
invisible. A little cutter scudding before the wind 
had entered the passage just before us, and seeing 
that she was a Swede we intended to follow her, but 
she came to the wind and let us go first. I had no 
seaman on deck whom I could trust with the helm, 
I had no one to look out aloft who knew the marks, 
and my brother being unable to stay below, I had 
no one to compare the chart with the appearance of 
the land. 

My best marks were the breakers upon the shoals 
and aided by these I contrived to con her in pretty 
safely; but, from the fault of my helmsman, she 
shipped a good deal of sea, and she had much more 
sail upon her than she ought to have had in such a 
breeze. As we passed between the batteries with 
the Jack up, a pilot boarded us, and, having taken 

L 2 



148 

charge, took her in and brought her up in a bed of 
weeds, where she drove and went ashore on the lee 
side of the harbour. It was quite smooth, but the 
gale was so strong as to make it very awkward ; but 
in a few minutes down came a launch from the 
Swedish guard-ship, with an officer and twenty men 
carrying anchors and warps, with which they soon 
hove tis off, with the loss of my best anchor, which 
unfortunately got hold of a wreck. 

Our next visitoi^ was an officer from the Lazaretto, 
who declared us under quarantine ; and the pilot, 
having suffered the vessel to drive out of bounds, 
was ordered to share our imprisonment; but we 
were allowed fresh provisions from the shore, and 
we were surrounded by a little flotilla of boats from 
the Swedish ships and Lord Newborough's yacht, 
a fine screw brig, all eager for news from Bomar- 
sund. So we made the best of our durance, and 
were much amused by the dialogue which Ned 
maintained with Moses the pilot, neither of them 
understanding one word of what the other vociferated 
at the loudest pitch of his voice. 

The Swedes are the kindest and most hospitable 



HOMEWAItD-BOUND. 1 49 

of men. On board the flag-ship, and at the house 
of Commodore Ruuth, formerly of the " Doris," we 
were most kindly entertained. 

At a dinner party, one begins with spirits and 
bread and butter, a great variety of dishes follow- 
ing, among which, preserved fruit of different kinds 
is conspicuous : their punch and liqueurs are 
capital. 

Carlskrona stands on an island, imited by a 
bridge to the mainland ; it has capital docks hewn 
out of solid rock. The architecture of the town is 
of a very low order, and the shops are bad. On the 
whole, it is decidedly rather better than Sheemess* 
The water of the town is brought in carts and boats 
from a village called Lyckeby, " The Happy Village," 
two or three miles distant; and I fear we must 
confess that our friends the Swedes, although they 
are nice, kind, hospitable people, are not particu- 
larly enterprising, nor are they likely to make 
much noise in the world just at present. They 
had one screw line-of-battle ship, of which they 
were very proud, and their sailors are remarkably 
fine men ; but their ships are too slight to stand 



150 

hammering, and their tools and workmanship are 
indifferent. 

On Tuesday the 29th, having replaced the lost 
trysail-gaff, we sailed ; and having, by the aid of a 
good pilot, threaded a most intricate passage to the 
northward of Aspo and Hasselo, we put to sea with 
three reefs in the main-sail, and were soon reduced 
to try-sail and storm-jib, the wind west by south, and 
blowing hard. 

This continued till the evening of Thursday the 
31st of August, when we brought up at Copen- 
hagen quay, glad to find ourselves once more in a 
smooth harbour, with a good supper in prospect, 
and a good long snooze after it, the greatest luxury 
ofaU. 

At Copenhagen, we heard bad news of poor 
Shelley, the sailor whom I had left in hospital. He 
was cured of the rheumatic attack which was the 
immediate cause of his illness ; but his old malady, 
the climate fever, had so damaged his constitution, 
that a dangerous operation was necessary, which he 
would not submit to so far from home, and he had 
^returned to Southampton in a weak and sinking 



HOMEWABD-BOUND. 15l 

state. The mother of our Danish sailor, Peter, 
also lay at the point of death, and he showed much 
natural anxiety to be present at the time of his 
parent's decease. On inquiry, however, it proved 
he did not seem to care so much about his mother, 
but was in great fear lest his brothers and sisters 
should appropriate his share of her things. 

We went to the Copenhagen opera, where a ballet 
was performed with some success. An Eastern 
potentate, in a state of extreme drunkenness, was- 
greeted by a troop of dancing girls, upon one df 
whom he fixed his sottish affections; the young 
lady, however, while she gracefully Acknowledged 
the compliment, took the occasion to inform his 
majesty that she considered him both old and ugly, 
and she greatly preferred a young man, whom she 
pointed out among the spectators. Upon this 
declaration, the young gentleman in question is 
ordered for immediate execution, while the monarch 
and his court retire to supper. 

Hereupon succeeds an interesting scene between 
the young people: the gentleman, very much 
annoyed, sulks in a comer, and the young lady 



152 LOG OP THE "pet." 

stands upon one leg, maintaining the other at an 
angle of 45^ with the horizon, to display her 
sympathy and affection. 

Finally, matters are comfortably arranged some- 
how; the interesting lovers, iCt the close of a 
startling pas de deux, are united in wedlock ; the 
emperor joins their hands, and all concerned waltz 
into a final pose amid the flash of fireworks and the 
dash of music. 

The following evening we dropped down to Elsi- 
neur, where we stayed Sunday, and saw Hamlet's 
walk, " the dreadful summit of the cliff ** of Shake- 
speare ; the " wild and stormy steep " of Campbell. 

In reality, however, it is a very meek little hillock, 
not very much higher than Tower Hill, and not for 
a moment to be compared in wildness, storminess, 
or steepness, to Greenwich Park. 

The castle, however, is a beautiful building ; some 
piarts are of great antiquity, and the chamber where 
Holger Danske, the indigenous hero of the Danes, 
was imprisoned, in the year 2 of the Creation, is 
still to be seen. 

The fortifications are very slight, and altogether 



HOMEWARD-BOUND. 158 

unworthy of the* important position which they 
occupy ; the garrison consists chiefly of Holsteiners, 
whose fidelity cannot he trusted among their own 
kinsfolk and acquaintance. 

Hamlet's grave is marked hy a single stone 
obelisk, evidently of very early date; it is sur- 
rounded by tables and chairs, where citizens from 
Copenhagen consume beer and coffee, and defile 
with their heel-taps the sepulchre of a king. 

After passing a pleasant evening at the house of 
the British consul, we departed laden with fruit and 
flowers, and having shipped a sailor for the run 
home, sailed the same evening, with a gentle breeze, 
for the Scaw. 

The tariff for the watermen's boats at Elsineur 
is enormous ; I paid twenty-five shillings for three 
trips of a hundred yards. There is no remedy, as 
the exaction is legal, and the money goes to main- 
tain certain public charities in the town. 

Elsineur, though by no means the wild romantic 
spot described by poets, is a very pretty and inter- 
esting place. The roads are usually crowded with 
shipping, and the straits, two miles wide, are dotted 



154 LOG OP THE "pet." 

with the sails of ships of every maritime people. 
All vessels, except yachts, and I suppose men-of- 
war, pay certain dues to the Danes on passing 
through the Sound, and formerly it was customary 
for every passing ship to lower her topsails, in 
honour of the Danish flag. This usage has been 
abandoned, I suppose only because the Danes had 
not the power to enforce it, and the Yankees declare 
that the Sound dues shall follow. It is, of course, a 
disadvantage and annoyance to our transatlantic 
fellow-creatures to pay the toll ; but it is equally a 
disadvantage and annoyance to me, that I cannot 
pass through John Jones's cabbage-garden without 
his consent and permission. 



CHAPTER IX. 

SEAGEB BACK. 

" The twilight is sad and cloudy, 
The wind blows wild and free, 
And like the wings of sea-birds • 

Flash the white caps of the sea." 

No sooner had we cleared the Sound, and entered 
the Cattegat, than the wind rose, and the sea began 
to tumble about. The two sailors were forward in 
the galley, where the new hand, who had already 
received from his mate the title of Moses, had estab- 
lished an enormous heavy sea-chest. This altogether 
made the little craft pitch in a style that entirely 
astonished poor Moses, who, as the water came 
pouring through the scuttle, sat disconsolately in 
the drip, exclaiming, oh dear ! oh dear ! instead of 
caulking it with oakum like a seaman, and putting 
a good face on the matter. 

But the cholera had established its hold upon the 
poor fellow. He now confessed to me that the ship 



156 LOG OF THE " PET.*' 

which he had left had buried three hands while she 
lay at Elsineur, and he appeared convinced that his 
own time had come. 

The wind just enabled us to lie on our course, 
but the head sea stopped us, and it was noon before 
we were up with Anholt, an island in the Cattegat 
which the English- occupied during the war with 
Denmark, and where a spirited little action was 
fought between the garrison and a squadron of 
Danish gun-boats, which effected a landing. Even- 
tually the Danes were driven ofif. During the night, 
when we were between the island of Anholt and 
Lesso, it blew a gale of wind. We got her under 
try-sail and storm-jib, and hove her to; for the 
uncertain currents of the Cattegat render navigation 
extremely difficult, and it will not do at all to run 
about there at night in a gale of wind, unless one is 
sure of having ample sea room. At dawn the wind 
luUed, and we stood in for the coast of Jutland, 
which we made about the entrance of the Agger 
Canal, which cuts through the land and communi- 
cates with the North Sea in about latitude 56® 47'. 

Here we got a capital weather shore, which we 



SEAGEB BACK. 157 

hugged closely, and with the lead constantly going, 
we tore through tKe smooth water with our snug 
canvas in a gale of wind. The coast is flat and 
uninteresting, the only striking object is a high 
round hill behind the opening of the Agger Canal, 
rows of stakes are run out to sea for salmon nets, 
and little boats were seen hauled up on the shore, 
but nothing alive, except here and there a few 
buUocks, and a large supply of hooded crows. 

We passed inside Lesso, and inside all the 
shoals in two fathoms, and reached Fladstrand or 
Friedrichshaven early in the afternoon. Here we 
found a large fleet of wind-bound vessels riding out 
the gale, looking large and black, and wet as ships 
do in rough weather. Having lost our best anchor 
at Carlskrona, we had nothing but a light kedge to 
trust to. This we backed with the boat's grapnel, 
and he held us capitally. My boat I sold at Copen- 
hagen, as she cumbered the deck too much for foul 
weather at sea. 

My sick man grew continually worse. When he 
came on board he was as fine a bit of stout, hand- 
some, sun-burnt manhood as I ever saw ; and now. 



158 LOG OF THE " PET." 

in thirty-six hours, a weak, emaciated, bent, and tot- 
tering wretch — ^he looked as if Death's hand was 
ahready upon him. 

In the morning I took him ashore, but with many 
misgivings that he would be sent aboard again, and 
the vessel ordered off to sea to kick about in the 
waves of the inhospitable ocean, there to wage 
unequal war with the storm and the pestilence. 

But the Danes are very generous and liberal in 
these matters; the sick man was received in the 
cholera hospital, and the "Pet" was allowed to 
come into harbour without hindrance or restriction. 

The doctor said that the disease had not yet 
assumed the Asiatic form, but dangerous symptoms 
had already appeared, and he spoke very doubtfully 
of the result. 

We lay three days wind-bound at Friedrichshaven, 
and during this time it never ceased to blow a gale. 
One night the wind flew round to the eastward and 
compelled all the vessels in the roads to go to sea. 
The next day it blew equally heavy from the north- 
ward. These would have been capital winds for us 
had we been in the North Sea ; but in an easterly 



8KAGEB RACK. 159 

gale it is impossible to leave the harbour, and 
diiring the northerly gale it would have been a 
dangerous attempt to double the Seaw. So we made 
the best of our delay, and were very glad to find an 
ally and fellow-sufferer in Lieut. HaU, prize-master 
of the Hanoverian galliot " Eeinhard," lying wind- 
bound and leaky in the roads. 

Poor man, he had just received a document from 
his carpenter containing the result of an elaborate 
survey of the ship. " Honoured Sir," it began, " I 
have overhauled the ship thoroughly, and she make 
a deal of water both fore and aft through aU her 
seams, very bad in her bottom, and speciaUy her 
bows, likewise her decks." 

This was consoling for a man condemned to be 
cooped up in a dog-hole of a Dutchman's cabin, 
with a dolorous and odorous skipper for his mess- 
mate. 

Three days we passed in this little out-of-the-way 
place, with the hospitable consul and his family. 

It seems to be usual in Denmark for the 
daughters of the house to hand about certain dishes 
at dinner : it is a very pretty and pleasing custom : 



160 LOG OP THE "pet." 

and the youDg ladies appeared not to dislike the 
trouble. 

One afternoon our host, the consul, took us for a 
drive in his carriage into the country. The soil of 
this part of Jutland appears unimproved and sandy. 
Downs and low rounded hills terminate the land- 
scape on all sides, and on the whole, it is by no 
means an inviting territory ; but we were informed 
that the land being new, produces heavy wheat 
crops, and that the great Mr. Pitto was about to 
construct a railway, by way of Aalborg, to 
Copenhagen. 

One evening we went in large force to a strolling 
equestrian exhibition, at which the consul's young 
ladies were highly entertained; the beauty and 
fashion of Friedrichshaven were all assembled in a 
state of extreme enjoyment, and the performances, 
which were by no means contemptible, were re- 
warded with exclamations of applause. I do not 
like to pick holes in worthy people, who are doing 
their best to give pleasure to their neighbours ; but 
I cannot help remarking that one well-proportioned 
yoimg lady in operatic tights, who was executing a 



SKAGEB BACK. 161 

scene from Antony and Cleopatra on the top of a 
piebald palfrey, had a large hole in the calf of her 
left; stocking ; it is but fair to state that that portion 
of the damsel's skin which peeped from the orifice 
in question, was considerably whiter, and far less 
dusty than the garments which were intended to 
conceal it. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE NORTH SEA. 

** And away, and away tbrongli tlie drift and the spray. 
And £u: o'er the desolate sea.** # 

On Saturday the 9th, at length we got imder way 
with a pleasant westerly breeze, a squadron of small 
Swedish and Norwegian cutters streaming out 
before us to seaward like an enormous skein of 
wild geese. 

It is extraordinary what wretched craft these 
north country cutters are. In plying to windward I 
do not believe there is one of them that can go 
nearer than 6 or 6i points, allowing for lee-way ; 
all the evening and all the night we continued over- 
hauling one after the other till by dawn on Sunday 
I think we had got forty or fifty under our lee. We 
rounded the Scaw with a northerly wind, which com- 
pelled us to tack, and no sooner had we got round 
the spit, about midnight, than it flew roimd to the 



THE NOBTH SEA. 163 

westward, and resolutely headed us during the 
whole of our course along the northern coast of 
Jutland: still during Sunday it was pleasant 
enough, as we worked along the shore with our 
three sails in smooth water. We had doubled the 
Scaw before daylight, and there was now nothing 
but some 480 miles of rolling sea between us and 
old England. 

The sun, however, set black and ominous, and 
shortly after dark it came on to blow hard and 
heavy. After the long continuance of strong winds, 
the sea had not time to go down, so we found the 
pot ready boiling to receive us. Away went the 
little frightened " Pet " to her only refuge, the wide 
dark and angry sea. Having gained an offing, I got 
down my mainsail, and stowed him for the last time; 
set the try-sail, close reefed the boltsprit, and with 
storm-jib and reefed fore-sail, sent her at it once 
more. 

During our stay at Friedrichshaven I had got 

down all top-hamper on deck, rove new lanyards, and 

put the craft in sea-going order. The forehatch 

was battened, and I had no fear for the ship, but I 

X 2 



164 LOO OF THE "pet." 

was now one hand short of my complement, and 
the labour of shifting sails in heary weather was 
excessire; my brother also fell ill, infected, as I 
feared, by our last onlacky Moses ; and altogether, 
Ned and I had enough to do. Dnring Snnday, we 
had overhauled seven cutters and a schooner, but 
now no sail could be seen to enliven the turbulent 
and cheerless sea, except once or twice, in the far 
distance, some large Baltic ship or barque scudding 
away among the drift to leeward. 

The poor little " Pet," however, nothing daunted, 
set up her weather runners, hauled aft her sheets, 
and away she went on her rough and lonely course 
to windward. All Monday it continued to blow, 
the sea was very heavy, and there were many indi- 
cations of an adverse current, as well as wind and 
sea. On Monday afternoon we caught sight of the 
Holm's lighthouse, from which we took our last 
departure, and hove about N.W. by W. the best 
course we could lie for home. 

It would be tedious were I to give a detailed 
account of our stormy voyage across the North Sea. 
On referring to my log, I find nothing but brief 



THE NORTH SEA. 165 

notices, such as, " blowing a gale, sea very heavy, 
double-reefed try-sail and storm-jib." And again, 
" squally weather with heavy showers, wind and sea 
rising," " fire broke out in the forecastle, but was 
soon put out," &c. &c. 

I continued to feel my way across by the lead, 
always keeping the little cutter on that tack on 
which she looked best up for her port; the little 
ship behaved admirably, weathering and fore- 
reaching everything we fell in with in a surprising 
manner: fine clipper barques and schooners that 
certainly would have fore-reached us in fine weather 
now fell to leeward and dropped astern, and that 
too so rapidly, that I could scarcely believe my 
eyes. 

The cutter was relieved of all heavy spars, and 
with a few yards of canvas, every thread of which 
tugged away to the best advantage, she buzzed 
through the water like a turner's chisel, and topped 
the huge, carnivorous-looking seas as lightly as a 
roebuck. 

But it was very hard and anxious work — on one 
occasion I stood nineteen hours at the helm, and 



166 ^ LOG OF THE " PET." 

then only abandoned it when it came on to blow 
such a gale that we were compelled to heave to. 

That was a tremendous night: by an unlucky 
accident, a sea came on board just as the companion 
doors were opened, and wetted everything below. 
It blew so hard, that our double-reefed try-sail, a 
mere handkerchief, was almost unmanageable, and 
it took two hands to get in the weather sheet of our 
infinitesimal storm-jib. It was so dark that we 
could not have seen a ship till she was aboard of 
us, and the driving, spiteful spray made it almost 
impossible to keep the deck. We took every pre- 
caution that our seamanship could suggest, doable 
reefed the fore-sail to run up in case the jib should 
blow away, got up an old sail to batten the cockpit, 
and rove preventer sheets to the try-sail. 

Having overhauled every rope that could be 
chafed or strained, and hoisted a light, at length we 
took refuge from the bitter gale below, where we 
had a strong brew of tea, toast, and Welsh rabbit 
to console us, one hand looking up every minute to 
see all right. 

I am not ashamed to say, that a more serious 



THE NORTH SEA. 167 

feeling stole over our little ship's company, and such 
expressions as '^ Please God the gale should break 
by morning/' began to be heard. Still there was 
no cause for fear: the ''Pef " lay very quietly, 
nearly head to wind, and split the great seas as 
they came rolling towards her as a plough splits the 
clods : we knew exactly our position, and the wind 
and weather could not well change for the worse. 
If my brother had been well, I should not have 
cared ; but though he tried most resolutely to make 
head against it, he was quite beat by the malady. 
It was past noon the next day before the gale 
moderated sufficiently for us to restune our course, 
or rather the nearest approach to it that the adverse 
wind permitted. At length, when the sky cleared 
• upon the wild and desolate sea, nothing could be 
seen but two brigs, a mile to leeward, hove to under 
their snuggest canvas. 

The night following, the sky was black, with 
heavy squalls, which came rolling up from the 
implacable west, and I anticipated a repetition of 
the scene of yesternight; but as long as it was 
possible^ I kept her going, leaping like some mad 



168 LOG OP THE "pet." 

thing from sea to sea at a speed which promised to 
lessen quickly the distance that intervened before 
we could reach the haven of our rest. A Uttle after 
midnight, however, it came down upon us like an 
avalanche, and we had no choice but to heave her 
to once more. 

This night the sea was on fire with phosphoric 
light. It was fearful to see a great rolling sea of « 
fire come charging down upon us, and cover our 
deck with liquid flame, as it burst asunder, and 
dashed its foam and spray over us. At the very 
height of it, the wind flew round to the north-west, 
and we soon took advantage of the change, and for 
about an hour made a run upon our true course, 
but this was too good to last; the wind backed 
roimd to its old quarter, and we had to go chopping » 
and pitching to windward again. 

Twice we spoke vessels to compare reckonings, 
for we had no quadrant on board. On these occa- 
sions we found it necessary to come about a long 
distance on their lee quarter, and by the time we 
came up with them, their leeway was sure to bring 
them down within hail of us. 



THE NORTH SEA. 169 

Whenever the wind lolled, we got our lines out, 
and caught a good supply of mackerel, which were 
of great value, for as we had not calculated upon * 
constant head winds, our water began to fail, and our 
stock of fuel and biscuits also began to get low. 
Of salt beef we had an abundant supply, but I 
dared not cook it for fear of thirst. 

Nine days from Friedrichshaven were thus passed 
when I reckoned that we must be within a few miles 
of the English coast, and towards evening we put 
the vessel about and stood in to make the land. 
Nor were we disappointed, for shortly after simset a 
light appeared, which from its bright, steady, star- 
like appearance, I knew at once to be a lighthouse 
on shore ; soon after, another friendly beacon began 
to play upon the horizon, and at length two shore- 
lights were plainly visible. It was a welcome sight 
to all hands ; we felt that we had triumphed over all 
the difficulties that foul winds, heavy gales, and sea 
could offer, and right glad were we that we had not 
been induced, in the early part of the voyage, to 
bear up and run back for Gottenburg, or our old 
quarters at Friedrichshaven. 



170 LOG OP THE "pet." 

We were not yet, however, at the end of all our 
trouble. There are three places on this part of the 
'east coast where similar lights, a high one and a 
low one, are shown — ^Hasborough, Lowestoft, and 
Orfordness. Orfordness was too far south — ^Lowes- 
toft, too good to be true — and Hasborough very 
likely to be the place before us. Off Hasborough 
there is a dangerous sand, near which a floating 
light is placed, but there was such a blaze of 
fishermen's lights in all directions, that I could not 
trust it. Altogether, though I secretly believed 
that Lowestoft, our own port, was before us, I de- 
termined now to act with caution; and having 
approached as near as the suspected sand rendered 
prudent, I went about to make the Newarp light, a 
fine triple light displayed by a vessel near the north 
entrance of Yarmouth Eoads. Twice I was 
deceived by fishermen's lanterns, and at length 
our search for the Newarp proving fruitless, I hove 
her to to Wait for daylight. 

Morning dawned upon a strong south-wester and 
a chafed and foaming sea : a fine barque under close- 
reefed top-sails was under our lee standing to the 



THE NORTH SEA. 171 

north-westwaxd, and a brig and two smart schooners 
under snuggest canvas were to windward on the 
same tack. No land in sight. 

This was disappointing ; still the land could not 
have run far from us in about four hours, so we 
cheered up, and having once more trimmed our 
reefed stof m-sails, we stood in for Old England. 

Once and again we were victimised by a cloud 
on the horizon, and once a fisherman scudding 
under his fore-sail looked so like a row of low houses 
that Ned swore it was land. At length, however, 
a low blue cloud peered above the ragged edge of 
sea that bounded our view, and I shouted out 
" Land ! " lustily ; for some time it was doubted, but 
after a while a tall, pointed church spire was 
descried amid the cloud, pointing upward to heaven. 

Now, at last, I knew where we were, but fearing 
to disappoint my brother, I kept my secret to my- 
self. Gradually the white Pakefield cliff, the dark 
Gorton hills, the weather-beaten steeples of Pake- 
field and Kessingland changed hope to certainty; 
and finally, the red buildings of the town, stacked 
as it were one over the other, and particularly one 



172 LOO OF THE "pet.** 

well-known house which I shall remember while I 
live, left no room for doubt. 

"Now, my boys," I sung out, "do you know 
where you are? We are running into Lowestoft 
Roads." A shout of delight and surprise was the 
answer, and my brother soon made out the lights 
house, the pier, and all the points of recognition. 
By this time the clipper barque, the schooner, and 
the brig, had hove about under our lee and passed 
astern, while dead a-head we made out the beacon 
buoy that marks the approach to Pakefield Gut. 
The angry sea went down, appeased by the shel- 
tering shore, the sun shone out through the hazy 
sky, and with light hearts we rounded the buoy, 
eased off our sheets for the first time since Carls- 
krona, and ran merrily to the pier, where, on former 
voyages, kind and well-known voices had been wont 
to cheer our return. 

Now, however, all was silent and deserted in the 
early morning ; but our triumph was complete. After 
tacking zig-zag across 480 miles of sea, never for 
an hour on our true course, after being thrice hove 
to, on one occasion for fifteen hours, the first land- 



THE NORTH SEA. 173 

fall was the very spot for which we were bound ; we 
had hit the target at the centre of the bull's eye, 
and brought our little ship, without damage or 
disaster, to the haven where we would be. 

We heard, afterwards, that the "Maria" schooner, 
which had been our neighbour in the roadstead at 
Copenhagen, had foimdered in the North Sea, and 
four other vessels had perished during our passage 
on the same voyage ; even a French frigate had put 
back with loss of bulwarks from Skager Back, the 
opening of the Cattegat, so we had every reason to 
feel well satisfied and thankful at the safe termina- 
tion of our cruise. 



END OF FIRST CRUISE. 



SECOND CRUISE. 



CHAPTER I. 



OUTWARD-BOUND. 



" Ad6 nun ihr Berge, da v&terlich Hans, 
Es treibt in die Ferne mich maohtig hinaus." 

In the spring of the present year, 1855, 1 found 
it impossible to resist the temptation to undertake 
another Baltic cruise. 

Everything promised an active and eventful cam- 
paign ; an admiral was appointed to the command, 
who possessed the confidence of the service; all 
deficiencies in the matSriel were to be supplied ; 
gunboats in swarms, floating batteries of marvellous 
power, amd still more marvellous form ; and mortar- 
boats equipped in new and singular fashion were 
devised, and promenaded through the columns of 
the morning papers. The experience of the past year 




CRUISE OF 

PET YACHT. 

R.T y.c. 

ill 1855, 






Simfft. £ldmt i C* U CtrmkJl 



Z5 



Jf 



176 LOO OP THE "pet." 

unsatisfactory person. Our other hand was a South- 
ampton man. They were both masters of smacks, 
and, as I believed, quite competent to take charge of 
the craft in our absence. My excellent comrade and 
friend F., though unaccustomed to small craft, had 
made several long voyages, and was extremely fond 
of the sea ; our ship was well victualled and well 
found ; and on the whole we went to sea with most 
favourable auspices. 

It was not long before the well-known Lowestoft 
hills and the bright Pakefield cliffs dipped beneath 
the sea ; the breeze was strong and fair, our largest 
sails were set, and we bowled along gallantly till 
sunset, when the breeze fell, the sea went down, and 
the little craft glided slowly over the water as still 
and noiseless as a dream. 

Four days passed away pleasantly and quickly 
the weather was fine, and the water smooth ; a day 
and a night we lay becalmed upon the Dogger Bank 
and beguiled the time by hauling up whiting from 
their native depths. Poor wretches, they always 
wear such a stupid and surprised look when they 
come on board : their great vacant eyes and moi^th 



OUTWARD-BOUND. 177 

wide open — like a grocer disappointed of his bill ; 
I always feel sincerely sorry for them. 

Occasionally we got a nice fresh breeze, and with 
our large sails we made four or jBive knots for several 
hours together ; still the sea would not rise, but lay 
calm as a summer lake, and no drop of spray was 
dashed on deck during our passage across the 
stormy and fitful North Sea. Our days were passed 
in reading and mackerel-fishing, our nights in songs, 
yams, and sleep : if such weather could be insured, 
there would be many yachtsmen. 

On the night of June 30th, the weather was hazy, 
and F. and I had the middle watch ; the dead reckon- 
ing put us about thirty miles from the land, but the 
soundings, which here are very dependable, placed us 
nearer, and knowing that an easterly current prevails, 
we were on the qui vive for a land-fall. Presently a 
little long-shore bird came fluttering round the 
vessel, viewing us from all points, and evidently 
anxious to discover whether we might be trusted ; 
first he took a long wistful look at the boltsprit, but 
there was something about the chain bobstay that 
he did not like, and away he flew; then .he over- 



178 LOG OP THE " PET." 

hauled the topmast, but this was altogether too 
windy a locality, and he left us — but in about half 
an hour he returned, and after many resolute 
attempts, in which his poor little heart failed him, 
at last he came on board, tripped along the deck, 
and creeping in under the heel of the boltsprit, 
turned in for the night. I fear we all belonged 
more or less to the beast, bird, and fish slaughtering 
variety of the genus homo, but I believe there was 
not a man on board who would not have cut off his 
right hand rather than injure the poor weary little 
wayfarer who had trusted to our hospitality. 

Soon after this the mist rose, the moon shone 
out, and the high cliffs of Bovenbergen hove in 
sight. We had up a jorum of grog to wet the land, 
and welcomed it heartily, for the wind began to rise, 
and in thick weather this is an awkward coast to 
approach: but now all was prosperous; a strong 
south wind tore us along the coast past Agger 
Miinde, the mouth of the North Sea and Cattegat 
Canal ; past Hansholmen and Kobsknout, past the 
pretty little village of Harshalls to the Scaw. The 
coast is dreary and desolate beyond « anything; 



OUTWARD-BOUND. 179 

round sandy hills, on which stunted sea-kale and 
scanty rushes grow, — not a tree, not a corn-field to 
be seen. Eight melancholy wrecks lay stranded on 
the beach between Bovenbergen and the Scaw ; one 
or two were quite recent, and we saw their crews 
encamped on the shore, and hard at work trying to 
float their vessels ; the others were abandoned, and 
their bare ribs blanched white in the sun looked 
ominous enough. It was about midnight when we 
approached the Scaw, after a run of about 100 miles 
from Bovenbergen ; several vessels were in company, 
and a schooner about a quarter of a mile ahead 
approached the point much nearer than I should 
have ventured. I got four fathoms, three fathoms, 
two fathoms and a quarter less twain, in following 
her; still the schooner appeared a stout heavy 
vessel, and she held on, but I did not feel inclined to 
go ashore even in her company, so we hauled off into 
thi*ee fathoms ; the schooner, however, drawing I 
suppose no more water than a tea-saucer, kept her 
course and went round in safety ; two other vessels 
followed us, but soon after we rounded the spit they 
took fright at the shoaling of the water, and we saw 

N 2 



180 LOG OP THE "pet." 

them with their helms hard up scudding away 
towards the deep. The moral of this tale is, 
" Never steer by another man's compass." 

No sooner were we round the Scaw than the wind, 
which should have headed us, chopped round and 
came roaring after us as fair as it could blow. 

The course from Lowestoft to the Holm's Light 
is about E.N.E., but in the voyage out vesseU 
always find themselves to the eastward of their 
reckoning. I allowed half a point for the set of the 
current, and, as it proved, this was not enough. 
N.E. by E. is quite easterly enough even in fine 
weather : with strong westerly winds even this 
course is hot safe, and it is at all times more prudent 
to rim along the Dogger Bank^ and from that to the 
Fishers' Bank or Jutland Eeef, and to keep the lead 
going. The wrecks that line the coast had al) 
evidently run stem on, and lay high and dry on the 
beach; many more have been picked up by the Horn 
Eeef and the Scaw Point, and of these no wreck 
remains to tell the tale, immemorabiles ignptique 
jacent. 

The traffic up the Cattegat is enormous ; we had 



OUTWAKD-BOUND. 181 

frequently thirty or forty sail in sight, some 
swaggering along before the glorious breeze, others 
pitching and chopping as they worked their way to 
windward. We ran up the Cattegat in the day: 
towards evening the wind fell light, and, we ex- 
changed greetings with numerous vessels of all 
nations as we passed, and we were just boasting 
that we had overhauled everything that we had seen 
under way, when a tall and stately ship came 
stalking up astern of us, her taunt masts, without a 
rag of canvas set, towering over all the other ships 
as she passed them on her course. We soon made 
her out to be the " Imp6rieuse," frigate, with two 
mortar-boats astern of her, and we were speculating 
on the chance of her giving us a tow when she 
clapped her helm to port and bore up for the 
Belt. 

It was pretty sailing from Anholt Island to the 
Sound. At times the breeze was so light as 
scarcely to give steerage way, then a fresh little 
zephjrr would come dancing up from the west, and 
send us along merrily for an hour, then we lay 
almost motionless for a time close to some quaint 



182 LOG O^ THE "pet." 

old foreigner. One of our men had traded a good 
deal with the Channel Isles, where he had picked 
up a store of French, which though not copious was 
inexhaustible; it consisted of the words "Avou 
parlay Fransay, Munseer, Ho ? " And no matter 
whether the stranger were Dane, Dutchman, Swede, 
Rooshian, or Proosian, this formula was forthcoming 
on all occasions. Jim, the east countryman, was 
a youth of coarser texture. His notion of all 

foreigners was, that " if they were not 1 sy they 

had a 1 sy look," and he gave them a wide berth 

whenever he could. 

The next morning brought us to Elsinore, where 
we found nothing in the roads but the Danish 
guard-ship and a few merchantmen. In the 
evening Mr. Taylor the British consul lent us 
horses, and supplied us with an admirable cicerone, 
who took us a beautiful ride over the pretty wooded 
hills which surround Elsinore to Wodenshohe, a hill 
about six miles north of the town, on which Woden 
is reported to have said or done something, which I 
now forget. The frost this year was very hard, so 
that the Sound was frozen across; many people 



OUTWARD-BOUND. 188 

passed into Sweden on foot, and one young English 
lady rode across on her pony. 

This time we saw Elsinore to disadvantage ; it 
rained so hard that every street and square was soon 
changed into a river or a pond, and the inhabitants 
were all driven under shelter, except a few unhappy 
bedrabbled wretches, who^were seen, with their can- 
vas all adrift, scudding under bare poles before the 
storm. 

We got on board as well as we could, and took 
shelter in our cabin. 

The directions given in the book for approaching 
the Sound are extremely intricate and confusing. 
It appears to me the simplest thing possible : the 
channel is wide, the shores tolerably high, and there 
are no shoals in the track. The following directions 
will be found sufficient for a yacht. From Anholt 
floating light steer S. by E. i E. about twenty-three 
miles, when the KoU light will appear on the port 
bow ; hold on the same course, and, after about ten 
miles, the Nakken Head lights will show bearing S. 
Continue to steer as before, and in due time the 
iight on Cronborg castle will be seen; the same 



184 LOG OP THE "pet." 

course should still be kept with this light on the 
starboard bow, and the Danish shore should not be 
approached within a mile till Cronborg castle is 
passed ; then haul in for the anchorage, and bring 
up in eight or ten fathoms. In the " Pet " we 
worked along shore between the Lappen Sand and 
the main ; this passage cheats the current, but it is 
very narrow, and not to be recommended. 

The word tide is used by the pilots to signify the 
current when it sets in &om the Cattegat to the 
Baltic; the prevailing stream outwards they call 
the current or stream. 

In the strict sense of the word, there is no per- 
ceptible tide in the Cattegat, or any part of the 
Baltic. Currents and changes in the level are 
caused by strong winds, so that a seaman must 
always calculate on a lee-tide ; and, for some reason, 
the sea is always short, chopping, and confused, 
rising with every little squall, and going down as 
quickly ; pleasant simuner breezes are few and far 
between, calms and strong winds divide the time 
between them, with an occasional gale by way of 
an interlude. With a fair wind the Baltic is pleasant 



outward-bound: 186 

enough, the strong breeze and the lee-tide make 
short miles of it ; but a head sea is always a heavy 
sea, and a foul wind always brings a foul tide to 
back it. The shores, moreover, are dreary, unin- 
teresting, and uninhabited; there is little to be 
done in the way of shooting or fishing; and, but for 
the excitement of the war, few yachts I fancy would 
be tempted to make a second cruise in the Baltic. 



CHAPTER II. 

COPENHAGEN. 

Three hours* run brought us to Copenhagen, 
where we were kindly welcomed by the English 
yacht " Pandora," lately arrived from England, and 
bound, like ourselves, for the fleet. Here we re- 
mained three days while some alterations and im- 
provements were made in the " Pet's '* new fittings, 
which ought not to have been required ; and we spent 
our time in visiting the Thorwaldsen Museum, 
the Frauenkirche, and the other sights of the place. 
Copenhagen does not improve upon acquaintance ; 
the great bald houses, so tediously handsome, with 
their pseudo-classic unmeaning ornaments; the 
ugly statues of kings and princes ; and, above all, 
the crowded anchorage and foul stinking water in 
the harbour, made us glad enough to hoist our sails 
and away. 



COPENHAGEN. 187 

The citadel is a very strong, almost impregnable 
fortress; but it is so placed that the docks and 
arsenal may be shelled from the southward with 
impunity. The soldiers and sailors are very fine 
men ; and the people generally, though our friends 
the Swedes abuse them, impressed us favourably 
enough. The two great charms of the city are the 
Thorwaldsen Museum, and the Church of our Lady. 
The Museum is perhaps the most hideous edifice 
ever contrived by man. It is rectangular, and 
grows gradually smaller upwards, like a slice of a 
pyramid ; and, moreover, it is daubed all over with 
a species of fresco -painting commemorating the 
transpoi-t of Thorwaldsen's works to his native 
capital. This gives the museum very much the air 
and appearance of a wild-beast show. No one, 
however, in the presence of Thorwaldsen*s works 
wastes a thought on the hideous band-box which 
contains them. Casts of, I believe, all his statues, 
and many of his best works in marble, are here. 
The boldness and fertility of his genius strike 
one perhaps more than any one masterpiece. 
Friezes containing some hundreds of figures, and 



188 LOO OF THE "pet." 

groaps combining every possible difficulty, abound 
in the collection, and all are carried out with 
uniform ease and success. 

His style is classical; this probably has in- 
fluenced, in B, great measure, the taste of the 
Copenhageners, who very naturally adore Thor- 
waldsen, and has given rise, among artists of less 
calibre, to a hybrid allegorical style in works of art 
and ornament, which is detestable. 

During this voyage, as well as that of last summer, 
I had a good opportunity of observing the ground 
where Nelson fought the battle of Copenhagen, and 
I find it impossible to admire sufficiently the bold- 
ness, seamanship, and judgment he showed in his 
plan of attack : himself, not only an officer but a 
seaman, he cared little for shoals so long as water 
could be found to float his ships, and he succeeded 
in placing his fleet in a position where the firef of 
the citadel was entirely ineffectual, and that of the 
Trekroner batteries was in a great measure avoided. 
Doubling the Middle Sand, which stretches away 
to the southward of Copenhagen, parallel with the 
shore, he returned by the in-shore channel, between 



COPENHAGEN. 189 

the isle of Amag and the sand ; this passage was 
defended by dismantled ships and floating batteries 
moored on the edge of the deep water, and by 
land-batteries at too great a distance on the Amag 
shore* 

It appears to me that Nelson's victory was com- 
plete. It is true that his ships* masts and rigging 
were in a great measure disabled for the time ; but 
the enemy's defences were destroyed, except the 
batteries which did not command the ships. A few 
hours* darkness would have enabled Nelson's active 
crews to put the ships all-a-taunto again ; and, in the 
mean time, it was impossible for the Danes, under 
the guns of the fleet, to regain the position which 
their ships and floating batteries had occupied ; and 
a prolonged fire from the mortar-boats must have set 
the dockyards and the town in a blaze. 

A return of the prevalent northerly breeze would 
have enabled Nelson to retire unmolested by the 
same passage that he had entered, and would have 
brought Sir Hyde Parker's reserve down to his 
assistance ; and even if a gale from the southward 
had come on, the position was too sheltered for his 



190 LOO OF THE "pet." 

ships to sustain damage. As soon as he had con- 
trived to get into action without running the gauntlet 
of the Trekroner and the Citadel, the game was 
won. 



CHAPTER III. 

AT SEA. 

** If haply o'er the listening trees 
Wanders a sound, 
It seems a voice borne from the distant seas 
Upon a message bound 
Inland and far." 

One beautiful evening in July we sailed from 
Copenhagen. The wind was light and variable. 
We were soon in the 'midst of a fleet of some 
hundred sail slowly stealing outwards against the 
tide ; an hour more, and the Sound echoed with the 
clank of a hundred chains as we anchored in the 
calm. Scarcely had we subsided into rest when a 
white-sailed schooner was seen scudding up from 
the northward, with her yards square and her bows 
white with foam : soon an old brig, that had been 
driving stem foremost for an hour, too lazy to 
anchor, took the breeze, and came foaming up to- 
wards us ; and now it was, all hands up anchor and 



192 LOG OF THE " PET." 

away. A Yankee crew near us made the waves ring 
to the sound of their fine manly song as they hove 
their chain. Each ship vied with her neighboui? 
which should be first under way, and all was life 
and noise. Of course we got our little ship oflf first, 
and gained a clear start as far as Drago, where we 
fell in with a more stolid and determined calm, and 
again cast anchor for the night. In an hour the 
whole flotilla brought the breeze to within a hundred 
yards of us ; then, one by one, their sails flapped 
lazily against the mast, and then fell and hung 
down in listless folds as they drifted into 
the calm. Another scene of bustle and activity ; 
again the clank of chains; and the sea echoed 
with the loud voices of the captains as they 
invoked <^e customary blessings upon their 
respective crews ; then all was still, and wind 
and water, sails- and sailors, slumbered for a 
while. 

We had a tiresome voyage up the Baltic: the 
wind hung obstinately to the east ; or if by chance 
it veered a few points, then it proceeded to fall flat 
calm, and left us rolling and roasting under the fiery 



AT SEA. 193 

northern sun. OS Hano Isle we encountered a 
stormy night, in the middle of which a most im- 
portant little bolt, called the fid of the boltsprit, 
broke with a loud report and a shock as if the vessel 
had struck; and, during eighteen hours, we had to 
thrash through the heavy Baltic sea under close- 
reefed sails. Oflf the Utklippome rocks, which guard 
the approach to Carlskrona, we lay becalmed a long 
summer's day; and when we reached the south 
point of Oland, the easterly breeze freshened, so that 
I bore up and took the inside passage through 
Calmar Sound. 

At the south point of Oland there is a treacherous 
reef, which nms out three miles. In my little hooker 
I ventured to try it at two and a half, but soon 1 
got three fathoms, half twain, and ten feet, in suc- 
cessive casts, and was forced to jibe and scud away, 
like a scared wild duck, to the open. This, however, 
did not improve the soundings ; we seemed to run 
along a level ridge of rock, with here and there a 
great block of granite trying in vain to thrust his 
ugly head above the waves. 
. At last we got over at three miles' distance in 



194 

ihree-fathom water, and then had leisure to get a 
good look at an unhappy skeleton of a wreck which 
lay rotting on the shore. 

It is well worth while for a yacht to pass through 
Calmar Sound, especially with a head wind. 

Smooth water, a pretty shore, and an old in- 
teresting town make a pleasant change after the 
waste and dreary Baltic. 

The wind freshened, and by noon it was blowing 
half a gale, and we ran merrily along under the 
weather shore in seven fathoms, a mile and a half 
from the Oland shore. On approaching Calmar it 
is positively necessary to take a pilot through the 
narrows ; nothing but local knowledge will enable a 
man to thread his way through the rocks which are 
scattered about, some a-wash, others just showing 
their horrid tawny complexions through the clear 
water, others entirely out of sight. 

The pilots are rather slow in coming off, and we 
endeavoured to follow a little native cutter up the 
passage; but, while sailing alongside of her, and 
almost in contact, we touched a rock ; this was a 
broad hint, so we bore up and hove to, while our 



AT SEA. 195 

friend the cutter held on, and in a few minutes ran 
ashore hard and fast. 

By this time a pilot had got on board ; but he 
had scarcely taken us a hundred yards when a 
squall came on, with a fog so thick as to hide rocks, 
buoys, and waves entirely from sight. 

We came to an anchor for an hour, and when the 
fog blew off, no less than three vessels were ashore ; 
but it is all smooth water here, and no harm was done. 

With a pilot, however, there is no risk ; there is 
plenty of water for vessels drawing fourteen feet, and 
the pilots are very handy fellows, though certainly 
rather shaggy in their personal appearance. 

The haven is a very snug little place ; and the 
queer picturesque vessels, the pretty country boats, 
with their crews of women, the old castle, the ruined 
town walls, and the ragged beggar boys on the quay, 
would make a capital sketch : often, in my cruises, 
I have lamented that I cannot draw. To those who 
go down to the sea in ships, this power is not only 
an unfailing, constant source of amusement, but is 
one of the most useful accomplishments a seaman 
can possess. 

2 



196 LOO OP THE "pet." 

The Swedes have the best, prettiest, and cheapest 
boats I have ever seen ; they are built something 
like what we call a whale boat, alike at both ends, 
rather hollow lines, high, sharp, and raking at the 
bow and stem, rather low amidships ; built of pine, 
with rather clumsy timbers and thwarts. 

I have seen these boats knocking about the coast 
in all weathers, rowing and sailing generally with a 
crew of women, sometimes two women rowing and a 
man steering and smoking his pipe ; they are very 
dry and sea-kind little craft, sail well, row well, and 
stand any amount of ill-treatment. I have seldom 
seen anything prettier than they look as they scud 
away to leeward, their sprit-sail boomed off on one 
side, and their jib on the other; a piquant little 
top-sail, evidently first cousin to a petticoat, set 
flying aloft, the bright dresses of laughing peasant 
girls and baskets of ripe cherries, all blushing in 
the sun. If Bussian trading boats were like these, 
the sternest old sexagenarian cruiser that ever 
drank the Queen's rum, could not find it in his heart 
to hurt them ; but the Bussian boats and crews 
are the filthiest frowsy, shaggy, ragged, shock- 



AT SEA. 197 

headed sea-yermin that ever stank upon the 
waves. 

At Cahnar we called upon the consul^ who was 
very civil, and entertained us with cigars and the 
latest gossip from the war. The latest news in 
Sweden is about five weeks old, and Baltic in- 
telligence always reaches Stockholm and Carls- 
krona vid London. 

We also visited the cathedral, a great ugly 
Grecian edifice, and the castle, which proved more 
interesting. In Swedish churches one looks in vain 
for any trace of religious reverential feeling. In the 
cathedral at Upsala the chancel walls are covered 
with paintings, portraying the principal events in 
the political life of Gustavus the First, with copious 
extracts from his speeches. In the great church at 
Stockholm is a vile picture of the Judgment, by a 
distinguished master^ in which the great awful 
mystery of futurity is debased and materialised 
with the coarsest and most elaborate vulgarity. 
The most striking difference between the condition 
of the blessed and that of the wretched, is that the 
former estate consists chiefly of an arrangement of 



198 LOG OF THE "PET." 

nude young ladies, with their heads and feet in the 
usual relative position, while that of the latter is 
composed of numerous figures also nude, but 
inverted, with their heads downwards and their feet 
elevated in a position perpendicular to the horizon. 
The presence on holy ground of a picture so 
conceived and executed, is painful to a degree. 

Boyal pews, tombstones, and inscriptions in 
honour of the king are made so much of in the 
churches, that they seem to say in the words of the 
Psalmist, '' He is thy Lord God, and worship thou 
Him." It is customary also, except during service, 
to wear hats in church, the doors with a possibly 
needful but certainly not seemly caution are locked 
at the beginning of the sermon, and there you must 
sit nolens volens to the end ; and lastly, notice of 
skalds or public hunting appointments is always 
given in church. 

Imagine a clergyman in Northamptonshire rising 
and saying, " I give notice that Lord Fitzwilliam's 
hounds will meet on Monday at Stanwick Pastures, 
on Wednesday at Bythom Toll-bar, and on Friday 
^t the Kennel!" 



AT SEA. 199 

A traveller in Sweden pines for one of those 
solemn beautiful little chapels which we find in 
foreign lands by the way-side, on the mountain pass, 
by the cataract or the ford, where holy reverence 
and devotion are expressed in every simple feature 
of wood and stone. But such things may be 
sought for in vain in the church of Luther ; and I 
must admit that those of our own chapels which 
I have seen in Sweden, quite keep pace with the 
religious feeling of the land. 

The palace of Calmar is an object of melancholy 
interest. The rooms in which Queen Margaret 
assembled the Diet and united three kingdoms 
under her sway, the chapel in which Gustavus 
Adolphus prayed, the gorgeous Bidder Saal, and 
the quiet retired little bedroom in which kings and 
queens have cherished dreams of splendour and 
wept tears of bitterness, are here all crumbling and 
tottering to the ground, neglected and forgotten. 

Bound the bedroom of Gustavus Adolphus a 
frieze is worked, representing in high relief a 
hunting scene, in which a peasant saved the life of 
a king, while another bellowed aloud for help. 



200 LOG OP THE "pet." 

The walls of seyeral rooms are decorated with a 
kind of mosaic of coloured wood, most beautifully 
finished. A good-natured farmer's wife showed us 
the place ; -we brought away with us many melan- 
choly reflections and several fleas. 

With these we proceeded to sea under balloon jib 
and top-sail, surrounded by a chattering and laughing 
fleet of country boats, manned and officered by 
women and girls, and so we ran down the Sound 
over the pilot ground till it fell calm and dark, and 
then at midnight we let go the anchor and went 
to rest. Another lovely morning, another merry run 
down the smooth waters of the Sound, N. E. from 
the castle, another flotilla of pretty peasant boats, 
and we passed again into the Baltic. 

The breeze as usual freshened with the sun, but 
this time it was fair, and we ran merrily over to the 
Island of Gottland, which we made about midnight 
a little south of Wisby. Our balloon top-sail served 
us well this day as he did throughout the cruise. 

The next day was nearly aU calm; by most careful 
manoeuvring with every little flighty air that came 
sighing over the sea, we managed to creep over 



AT SEA. 201 

thirty miles, and an hour before sunset were off the 
entrance to Far5 Sound. 

Here a fresh but adverse breeze came down upon 
us ; however, the distance was short, the " Pet " is 
very good to windward, and we worked quickly 
through Ihe N. W. entrance to Faro Sound. 

,The Swedes say that there are three fathoms in 
the channel, but I came through it with a turning 
wind ; I sounded constantly, and I maintain that in 
the shoalest part there are not two fathoms, nor, I 
believe, more than ten feet. I stood over to the 
southward till I got a cast in seven feet; I hove 
about, and never got more than ten feet till it was 
seven feet again. 

Here the sight of English masts and' spars, and a 
cheer that was given us by a ship that we passed, 
put new spirits into our men, who were getting 
homesick and dispirited. They thought we had come 
too far; without exactly knowing why, they had a 
feeling like Columbus' men, that distance was 
dangerous, and like some other foolish creatures, 
they pined for home. 

Of Faro Sound I have nothing more to say, 



202 

except that my impression of its importance to 
Sweden as a naval and military station, was in every 
way confirmed. With the Bussians re-established 

e 

in the Aland isles and Faro Sound unfortified, the 
large and valuable island of Gottland may be con- 
sidered already Russian territory, riOmix' o fjiikXtov 
iviiv l<rO' 6 KarOavdv ; it is true'that the Swedes have 
some forts at Slito, but with Faro Sound in the 
hands of the enemy, these could not be held for a 
week. It is beyond a doubt that if the Swedes do 
not fortify the place, the Bussians will. 

We were entertained sumptuously by the worthy 
Mr. Grubb, where we met a number of Swedish 
officers, who were very Mendly, and invited us to 
their camp, their corvette, and a grand haymaking 
frolic, in which the young ladies of the neighbour- 
hood were to take an active part. 

The Swedes are very polite, especially in the 
matter of bowing. It is usual for a gentleman on 
entering a drawing-room to march straight up to the 
lady of the house, with stem aspect and inflexible 
demeanour; clank, clank, clank ring his spurs on the 
floor till he gets within range, then bang go the 



AT SEA. 203 

heels of his boots together, and the performer 
resolutely and with unrelenting mien bends slowly 
to the ground. The lady, by the skilful management 
of some unseen springs, or peculiar machinery in 
her constitution, at the same time sinks deeper, and 
still deeper, towards her mother earth. After a 
while, with unaltered gravity, they recover their 
elevation. Once and again these gymnastics are 
repeated in profound silence ; the third time they 
relax into a smile, and one or the other proceeds to 
remark that it is a very fine day. 

The naval officers, who have been to all parts of 
the world, and seen mores hominvm multorum et 
v/rbea, have shaken off many of these stiff tedious 
forms, and are gentieman-like, capital fellows. Here 
we heard fiiU particulars of the Hango affair, 
in which we took a deeper interest because my 

Mend F had a brother in the " Cossack ; " and I 

must say that the Swedes, without exception, spoke 
of it as a scandalous outrage and an act of silly and 
barbarous ferocity. 

^' No news from the Gulf" was still the tale, and 
here, for the first time, I heard the discouraging 



204 LOG OP THE "pet." 

phrase, "The old story of last year over again." 
However, every one had confidence in the admiral, 
and from his silent and reserved manner, sanguine 
people had inferred that some fine morning we 
should all be taken by surprise by some sudden and 
dashing exploit that would make the world ring, and 
freshen up the faded and frost-bitten laurels of the 
British fleet. 

Of course, we wished to be in time, so as soon as 
we had got our stores and some slight repairs com- 
pleted, away we went ; — ^but I must not forget to 
mention the beautiful, clear, clean, well-appointed 
hospital decks of H.M.S. Belleisle, now converted 
into a hospital-ship, or the huts for sick and 
wounded erected on the Pilot Island, which our 
government has hired for three years from the 
Swedish owners. 

It has a dry and healthy climate, and good water 
is to be found. The island, which lies midway in 
the south-west entrance to the Sound, is certainly 
rather a triste sSjour, but this defect might soon be 
remedied as far as seamen are concerned, by the 
institution of a skittle-ground, and the importation 



AT SEA. 205 

of a few live animals, dogs, cows, or monkeys for 
Jack to play with. 

The French have occupied ground on Faro, I 
»believe in a good position, but their huts let the 
wet in through the roofs^ a most serious evil. 

We sailed for a while with the Swedish corvette 
" Naiaden " in company. She is a very pretty little 
ship under canvas, and has a smart crew, both, 
officers and men. 



CHAPTER rV. 

THE GULP. 
" Der Eichwald braiuet Die Wolken zieli'n." 

It Is about 130 miles across from Far5 to the 
Gulf; and on our passage we encountered a gale of 
wind; and passed the night under fire of a huge 
black thunder-cloud, which kept up a ceaseless 
blaze and roar from his terrible artillery through 
the live-long night. We persevered through the 
gale, and were rewarded by making Dagerort light 
and passing into the Gulf of Finland on the evening 
of the following day. 

At the sight of Bussian land, a slight indisposi- 
tion seized our crew, which recurred with greater or 
less intensity throughout our stay in the waters of 
the foe. The principal symptom was a trembling 
sensation, sometimes violent, accompanied by gene- 
ral lowness of spirits, and a morbid desire to be in 
some other locality. 



THE GULP. 207 

As the sun set, a cruiser was descried. "You 
don't think she's a Booshin, Sir ? " suggested one 
man, as she fired a signal gun. This caused me to 
heave to, to the great dissatisfaction of my east 
country seaman, who was of opinion that if she was 

not 1 sy, at all events she had a 1 sy look. 

Soon the pretty and harmless little "Princess 
Alice " hailed us, and answered our eager inquiries 
with the stereotyped formula, " No news." 

The officer in command asked us to take a letter 
to the admiral, and enabled us to reassure our men 
with the certain information that we might sail 
without the slightest fear of any molestation from 
the enemy. We also heard that the cruisers were all 
recalled from their stations, and the combined fleets 
assembled in force at Cronstadt and Nargon roads. 

This made us eager to be oflf ; so we bade fare- 
well to the friendly little " Princess," and made all 
sail up the GuK of Finland. 

Nargon lies oflf the town of Beval, about ninety 
miles from Dagerort, the entrance of the gulf. The 
Bussians have an admirable chain of lighthouses, 
which, in time of peace, lead vessels in safety from 



208 

headland to headland. Now, however, war has 
extinguished all these Mendly beacons, and dark* 
hess broods over the waters. In summer, however^ 
the sun's rays never disappear from the horizon in 
these latitudes, and no light is needed. 

I cannot help thinking, that if the Bussians were 
a spirited and enterprising enemy, they might have 
had fine sport among the helpless lumbering mer- 
chantmen, which lay lolling in the calm upon the 
waters of the gulf. 

A long narrow boat, like a Yarmouth yawl, pull- 
ing twelve or twenty oars, and carrying three large 
lugs, might be extemporised in a few days, and 
might pick up pillage and scuttle a score or two of 
our store-ships and colliers with perfect impunity ; 
and I calculate, if a smart settlement of Yankees 
had been located somewhere on the gulf, they would 
have found some fun for us of this sort. But the 
Bussians have no aptitude for the sea, and the 
glorious achievement at Hango is a fair specimen of 
the dashing and enterprising spirit which animates 
their officers and men. 

We lay a whole day and night becalmed, and 



THE GULF. S09 

drifting towards the Russian lighthouse of Odens- 
holm; at one time we were within a quarter of a 
mile of it. This certainly «8eemed too much of a 
good thing, and we got our boat out, and towed off 
to seaward. 

"We afterwards heard that none but women were 
left upon the isle, and that we really were in con- 
siderable danger of being boarded by a bumboat 
laden with butter, eggs, and female Finns. 

The next evening, at sunset, we at length saw the 
tall spars of a line-of-battle ship towering over 
Nargon Isle. Ship after ship opened out behind 
the pine trees, lying still in her " stately strength 
and magnificent repose ;" and the masts of a whole 
flotilla of gun-boats and mortar-boats bristled up 
like a swarm of angry wasps along the shore. 

We were soon boarded by the guard-boat; and 
the eager questions on both sides received, as usual, 
the discouraging reply, " No news." 

We then ran down to the flag-ship, delivered our 
despatch, received our letters, and finally, to our 
great delight, came to an anchor in company with 
the British fleet. 



210 LOG OP THE "pet. 

The following day, a strong easterly breeze arose, 
and sent a heavy turbulent sea into the roads, ren- 
dering all communicatio;! difficult ; but it was a fine 
sight to see the glorious fleet around us, the beauti- 
ful "Euryalus," the noble "Duke," the "Exmouth," 
the sturdy old block-ships "Pembroke," "Hastings," 
"ComwaUis," the "Austerlitz,"andthe "TourviUe," 
besides a large and continually changing squadron 
of paddle frigates and corvettes. The saucy-looking 
gun-boats, with their pale, lead-coloured sides, and 
their three raking masts ; our yawl-rigged mortar- 
boats, bluff and ugly as bull mastiffs; and the 
strange, grotesque craft which the French had got 
by way of gun-boats, and their schooner-rigged 
mortar-vessels, altogether composed a most hetero- 
geneous but formidable squadron. Besides these, a 
numerous fleet of English and Norwegian store- 
ships and colliers, with Danish bumboats, filled the 
roads; all rolling and pitching in the chopping 
sea. 

To the westward lay the Isle of Nargon, clad in a 
mourning suit of pines; to the southward, the 
Bussian town of Beval, with the tall towers of 



THE GXTLF. 211 

the Domberg, and the painted cupolas glittering in 
the sun. 

We learned that the war was still being waged 
in the heavy lumbering fashion of last year — not 
towns alone, but martello towers and tele- 
graph stations along the coast remained uninjured 
and unassailed. The " Arrogant," " Cossack," 
" Magicienne," and " Euby," had had a dashing 
little affair at Fredrickshamn, where they knocked 
down a battery, and raised a conflagration. Occa- 
sionally a Bussian gun-boat had shown her nose at 
Cronstadt, but instantly retreated on the slightest 
indication of an attack. 

One not very creditable affair had occurred, in 
which two of our gun-boats had lost a brilliant 
opportunity; and so many angry things were said 
upon this very sore subject, that I shall add no 
more, but only say that the lieutenants in com- 
mand of the gun-boatSj and the officers and men 
serving under them, were at all events entirely free 
from blame. 

Further than this, we found that every one 
expressed entire confidence in the admiral, and 

p2 



913 

much as they fretted under the inaction which for 
two years has been freezing the life-blood and dim- 
ming the lustre of the British fleet, officers and 
men all agreed that the admiral knew what he was 
about, and they had recourse to the wildest con- 
jectures to account for that want of fire and energy 
in all our proceedings, which still is, and I suppose 
ever will be, unaccountable. 

A few Finnish peasants, chiefly women, remained 
upon the Isle of Nargon, which is treated as common 
property by the allies. Pic-nic and cricket parties 
were frequent, and the lonely rocks were made to 
ring with the sound of French and English 
laughter. 

On one of these expeditions, I saw a pretty sight. 
Under the shade of a tree a little native girl^ with 
large, surprised blue eyes, and long, fair, unbraided 
hair, was sitting mending a net, and beside her a 
young ship boy of the " Geyser" lay full length, his 
eyes bent upon her in silent admiration. 

The two children had evidently struck up a little 
love affair, and the handsome sunburnt English boy, 
in the beautiful dress of the British fleet, the fair 



THE GULP. 213 

Finnish child, the tall outlandish pine over head, 
formed a charming group. Poor boy : Facem duello 
miscuit; ah miser! He was speedily called away 
to cool the captain's champagne; and I would 
wager that whenever he hears the well-known 
strains of " The girl I left behind me," the image 
of a dark Russian pine, a broken net, and two large, 
surprised blue eyes, will ever be one of his best and 
most innocent recollections. 

Twice we took advantage of a fresh breeze, and 
sailed in with a number of officers to reconnoitre 
the beautiful town of Reval. In front, that is, to 
the northward of the town, lies a low rocky island, 
Karlso, defended towards the sea by a single mar- 
tello tower, resembling those at Bomarsund. This 
was apparently abandoned and dismantled. To the 
eastward of the island is the approach to the town, 
and on this side the place is supposed to be strongly 
fortified. We could plainly see one large white 
battery, bearing a strong resemblance to the great 
Bomarsund Fort, and several other low indistinct 
batteries, like those at Sveaborg, seemed to be nest- 
ling among the buildings. 



214 LOG OF THE " PET." 

We stood in to the bay which lies west of the 
island, and we could discover no defences of any 
importance. It is possible that a battery of a few 
guns might be masked in a low wood on the main* 
land ; but on this side, I have no doubt that the 
town of Eeval might be shelled at long range with 
impunity. 

In the afternoon, the " Magicienne " and " Cos- 
sack " came in, and we heard that they were going 
out again the next day, to beat up a Russian posi- 
tion on the island of Kotka, some seventy or eighty* 
miles distant, on the north shore of the gulf. 

The first lieutenant of the "Cossack" most 
kindly asked us to sail with them, the captains of 
both ships backed the invitation, and we went to 
rest in high spirits at the prospect of some real 
active work on the morrow. 



CHAPTEB y. 

KOTKA. 
'' Hark ! through the silence of the dull cold night.** 

The day dawned hot and calm ; the " Cossack " 
held out hopes of being able to give us a tow, but 
circumstances rendered this impossible, and we got 
under way with faint hearts, and little hopes of 
arriving in time at the rendezvous under Hogland 
Isle. 

Slowly we crept over the calm waters, swiftly 
followed the ships, punctual to their time, steaming 
and sailing. The " Pandora *' schooner yacht had 
got a good start, and had found a breeze, while we 
were still lying helpless in the sea. 

The " Cossack " passed us and went ahead ; the 
*^ Magicienne " was about a mile astern, under 
royals and stun-sails and steam. Suddenly, down 
came the breeze, fair, fresh, and buxom as a milk- 
maid, and away went the little ship foaming through 



216 LOG OF THE " PET. 

the sea, with her white wings spread on either side, 
and her great top-sail swelling out with the glorious 
breeze. 

Fresher and fresher blew the wind, till the sea 
began to tumble, and the waves curled white with 
streaky foam to windward. 

All the evening and all the livelong night the 
wind blew and never flagged, and, to our delight, we 
succeeded in keeping our station between the 
frigates ; and, rounding the south side of the high 
rocky island of Hogland, we arrived at the rendez- 
vous just as the commodore. Captain Yelverton, of 
the " Arrogant," signalled to the ships not to let go 
anchor, but to proceed at once to the scene of 
action. 

The frigates had brought four mortar-boats with 
them and a reinforcement of gun-boats joined us at 
the rendezvous, and so we made a good strong 
flotilla. The magnificent screw frigate " Arrogant," 
the fine paddle frigate " Magicienne," and the cor- 
vette " Cossack," a long black wicked-looking ship, 
much larger than an old-fashioned frigate, the gun- 
boats, mortar-boats, and yachts in company, made a 



KOTKA. 217 

pretty picture as they thi^eaded the shoals and islands 
which beset the approach to Eotka Isle. 

The object of this expedition was to land on the 
little island of Kotka, there to complete the destruc- 
tion of a large barrack and military establishment, to 
destroy a bridge which supplied the only commu- 
nication with the mainland, and then, passing 
round by the south-east of Kotka, to take the mortar 
and gun-boats, if possible, to a position within 
range of a large fortified camp which the enemy had 
occupied further up the fiord, to shell them out,.and 
destroy their goods and chattels. 

As we approached Eotka, we caught sight of 
Botsenholm, a large granite fort, which the Bussians, 
not having that implicit faith in the^ virtue of stone 
walls which some of us entertain, had dismantled 
and blown up. 

Leaving this on the starboard hand, we saw the 
beautiful gilded cupola of Kotka church towering 
high over the trees, and soon afterwards we entered 
the narrow passage which leads up to the position. 
Here the drum beat to quarters, and it was fine to 
see the delight and spirit with which the men 



218 LOG OF THE " PET/' 

welcomed that for which our authorities have so pro- 
feund a hatred — active service. The men crowded 
round their guns in a high state of eager fun ; the 
captains of the guns, the best men of the ship, with 
their handsome faces and sinewy arms all bronzed 
by the sun and wind, at the rear of their guns with 
the lanyards in their fists ; the old gunner prowling 
about to "consecrate" {Anglic^ concentrate) the 
guns; the officers, less sanguine than the men, 
evidently in a state of despondency and alarm for 
fear lest, after all, there should be no enemy to 
encounter. 

Too true. The Bussians, who are capital hands 
at assaulting a flag of truce, or cannonading an 
unarmed yacht, but have a decided dislike for the 
whole family of frigates, corvettes, gun -boats, and 
mortar-boats, had decamped, and left the island, 
the town, the barracks, two old women, one pig, and 
several geese at the mercy of the enemy. 

The bridge was soon in flames ; and one burning, 
and another reconnoitring party were landed* 

Life in a man-of-war is an amusing phase of human 
existence. Here we had in the narrow limits of a 



EOTEA. 21'9 

corvette's deck a large assembly of seamen smoking, 
for it was the supper honr, and chatting eagerly 
about the Rooshins ; a butcher in the act of most 
scientifically slaughtering a bullock; a party of 
marines about to land, undergoing inspection on 
deck, — and with their loose serge frocks, dark 
trousers, and excellent arms and accoutrements, 
these capital fellows looked soldiers every inch. 
Just abaft the foremast, a group of officers, with 
every variety of pipe, from the proud meerschaum 
to the jet black inch and half of clay, were telling 
us the tale of the Hango massacre. Close to them a 
man was staving in beef casks, and the brine from 
beef mort, and the blood from beef moribund, com- 
bining chemically with the dust and smut from the 
engines, made the deck look as if it could never be 
clean again. Still the very dirt and oflfal of a man- 
of-war, I must admit, is not devoid of a certain 
sense of duty, and flows in an orderly and regula- 
tion stream, with due respect for the officers' boots 
and breeches. 

As we sat in the midst of this scene, up came a 
tall, but pale and sickly marine, and, touching his 



220 LOG OF THE " PET." 

cap to the doctor, begged that he would take him 
off the sick list, and let him go ashore with his 
comrades. The doctor somewhat reluctantly con- 
sented, and away went the marine, delighted at the 
prospect of possibly shooting, or abetting to shoot, a 
Booshian or two before he slept. 

Soon after' the marines had landed, a bright 
tongue of flame darted out from among the pines, 
a cloud of smoke followed, then a roar, and a murky 
glare, and the whole barrack, a huge building con- 
cealed behind the woods, was in a blaze. 

The following day we were left to guard the pas- 
sage by the bridge, while " Arrogant *' and " Magi- 
cienne," with the small craft, went round to the far 
side to reconnoitre the position of the enemy. This 
was mortifying, but the men endeavoured to con- 
sole themselves with the hope that the enemy 
might possibly come down in the night and can- 
nonade us with grape and canister. However, it 
did not make much difference, for the whole expedi- 
tion, though well planned and executed, was doomed 
to fail. Soon after midday the " Arrogant " tele- 
graphed to us that the enemy's position was entirely 



KOTKA. 221 

inaccessible; there was no water even for a gun- 
boat within three miles of it ; and our only chance 
of a brush was that the enemy might try to give us 
a peppering, or force the bridge at night. 

In the evening, a boat from one of the ships 
landed to complete the destruction of the bridge. 
No sooner were the men ashore, than a flotilla of 
geese, belonging to the garrison, was seen recreating 
themselves in a shallow pool. Away we all went, 
sailors and marines, hand over head, head over 
heels, rough and tumble, into the water, out of the 
water, now up, now down, after the geese. Never 
was such a cackling heard at Eotka ; never such 
roars of laughter. We soon had the whole flock, 
except the patriarchal gander and the partner of 
his bosom, who paddled, with dismal cackles, away 
to the deep. 

Afterwards, we went up into the deserted village. 
The houses, with their windows and doors loosely bar- 
ricaded, as the peasants had left them in their flight ; 
the great government buildings entirely stripped 
and empty ; the two unhappy old crones left behind, 
with other unprofitable articles; the smouldering 



222 LOG OF THE " PET." 

ruins of the burning barracks; the traces in the 
better houses of comfort, or little home luxuries — a 
pretty fuchsia in a flower-pot, a little bird-cage 
with the door open, just as some poor girl had 
snatched away her pet bird and left the cage in her 
haste ; all these things told their little tale of the 
tears and the terrors which war brings with it. 

I picked up a little silver locket containg a minia- 
ture picture of the Virgin and Child upon porcelain I 
it was a very pretty memento of Kotka Isle. 

The barracks, as usual among Bussians, were 
handsome outside, but mean, sordid, cheap, and 
dirty within. Large stores of wood were piled in front 
of these buildings, which promised us a fine blaze 
so soon as the time for our fireworks should arrive. 

At night, a party of marines was landed, and a 
boat or two rowed guard to protect the bridge. The 
wind had changed in the evening, and was blowing 
fresh ; the embers of a large government house in 
the village had blazed up with the breeze, the flame 
had spread to a large farmyard, and from thence to 
other houses, and half the village was in a blaze. 

The roar of the fire came down to us with the 



KOTKA. 223 

wind, mingled with the cries — ^not of women and 
children — but of an unhappy pig, who singed his 
bristles as he fled. 

I went forward a little way into the village to see 
whether the fire was likely to spread towards the ship, 
and as I went I beheld a lonely porker jogging down 
the road, and grunting dismally over his sorrows. 

Actuated by motives of humanity, I felt it my 
duty, if possible, to direct the suffering animal 
towards the bayonets of the marines; for it 
would have been too sad a circumstance if he had 
escaped, with his ribs half roasted and his hams 
prematurely smoked, to mourn in solitude in the 
woods, so I tried my best to keep him straight in 
the right path. The pig, however, like many of us, 
not knowing what was best for him, thought other- 
wise, and sheered off for the forest ; after a fine 
hunting run of ten minutes, I turned him and got 
him back to the broad road, which he began to suspect 
would lead him to ruin, for he slewed port 
and starboard, and I had much trouble to keep him 
in the right direction ; at last, however, I got him 
to the top of the little hill, under which the captain 



224 LOG OP THE "pet." 

and marine officer were posting their men according 
to the manners and customs of war. " Look ont 
for the pig," I shouted ; and, in a moment, eyerj 
man was under way, over rocks, under branches, 
up and down full gallop. Poor pig had a bad chance 
with them; a bayonet stuck in his short ribs, 
another in his gullet, and a Minie bullet pierced his 
heart. The body was brought in triumph to the 
boat. This pig belonged to the barracks. 

The same evening, I am sorry to say, some people 
on the other side of the island evinced a disposition 
to pillage and violate the sanctity of private pro- 
perty ; of course it was denied by all hands ; but a 
non-combatant goose that escaped with his head off, 
and, running down the village, encountered the 
trousers of a post-captain, told a sad tale. 

These irregularities, however, were very slight, 
and were immediately repressed by the officers. 

Sentries were placed at the church door to pre- 
serve it from all chance of outrage, and happily the 
fire, which arose so quickly and unexpectedly, spared 
this beautiful building. It is impossible to pass 
through a Bussian village without seeing many indi- 



KOTKA.. 225 

cations that they are eminently a religious people ; 
the care bestowed in beautifying their churches is 
conspicuous. 

After this little diversion our work of destruction 
began. We burst down the barrack doors, broke 
them up, and, piling them in the still uninjured part 
. of the building, set fire to them, and soon had a 
royal blaze ; then we got some dry furze, stacked it 
up among the wood stores, and fired the whole, 
till the island and the fiords around it glittered 
and roared with the fire. 

By this time it was daylight, and in an hour the 
"Cossack" was under way, crawling out through 
the rocks to seaward. The difficulty of these pas- 
sages can scarcely be exaggerated. At one time 
the soundings gave us half three, that is, twenty- 
. one feet on both sides amidships ; five fathoms 
forward; and four* aft; while the ship drawing 
eighteen feet was aground. The Baltic is not, as 
it is generally represented, a sandy sea gradually 
filling up by the deposits of its rivers. The bed 
consists generally of great granite boulders, or solid 
rock, with here and there a tract of clay ; and these 



226 LOG OP THE "pet." 

boulders render nayigation in shoal water more 
than usually perilous. 

We had a merry run to Hogland, with a fine 
breeze, and a sea in which the mortar-boats rolled 
till their masts lay nearly flat upon the surface ; I 
never saw anything in the shape of a vessel roll as 
they did. This is of course a great defect ; not only 
does it render them very dangerous craft at sea, 
but in any little swell, from which the Baltic is 
seldom free, it would be impossible to fight their 
mortars. 

We were all below writing letters for the mail, 
when the cry, " Man overboard ! " was heard. In a 
moment all hands were aft, four men in the second 
gig lowering away, while the officers came tumbling 
up the hatchway, slackening braces and loosening 
waistcoat buttons, in case of a swim. 

The life-buoy was let go, but it drifted so fast in 
the breeze that the man, who was a stout swimmer, 
strove in vain to reach it ; however, the boat was 
soon alongside of him, and hauled him in cool and 
imconcemed; and in thirty seconds the ship had 
returned to her duties and her equanimity. 



KOTKA. 227 

One very remarkable indication of an altered state 
of things in naval life, is the fact that on board 
many ships in the present day morning prayer is 
celebrated daily. Attendance, except on Sunday, 
is not compulsory, but there was generally a good 
congregation assembled of their own free will. 

It was interesting, on these occasions, to watch 
the demeanour of the prisoners taken from the 
Bussian boats ; they of course understood no word 
that was uttered, but they watched attentively the 
lips of the chaplain, and followed every movement 
of the congregation. Although they had nothing by 
way of clothes but what they stood in, and no other 
personal effects whatever, every man had the prayer- 
book of his church, and these they used regularly 
and with every appearance of devotion. 

On board our own ships the youngsters of all 
ranks are taught the Church Catechism, and other 
, things which a Christian ought to know. 

On our arrival with the yacht at Nargon we 
found, as usual, no news ; but as we sailed in, we 
were hailed in a rude manner by a large iron steam- 
boat, " Where are you from ? " &c. ending with 

Q 2 



228 LOG OP THE " PET." 

*' You don't mean to say you came from England in 
that thing ! " This was the steam transport " Cot- 
tenham ; *' a few days afterwards she ran ashore near 
the south point of Gottland, where she became a 
total wreck; her passengers, consisting of invalid 
seamen, mutinied, broke into the captain's wine-bin, 
and committed every possible atrocity. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

SVEABORG. 

** But now the town is going to be attacked ! 

Great deeds are doing. How sliall I relate *em ? 
Sonls of immortal generals 1 Phoebns watches, 
To colour up his rays from your despatches." 

Indications of active movements were now ap- 
parent. The fleets were daily reinforced by frigates 
and gun -boats from all quarters; the "Calcutta" 
and " ^olus " had arrived with • their cargoes of 
ammunition, and the belief became universal that 
the Admiral was going to begin. 

On Saturday, the 4th of August, the ships were 
all ready for sea — steam up and capstan-bars rigged. 
" Cornwallis " and " Hastings," with " Dragon " in 
company, were already clear of the roadstead; 
" Edinburgh " and " Arrogant," with a long string 
of gun and mortar-boats, had also lifted their 
anchors ; when the admiral, not liking . the look of 
the weather, countermanded the order, and all the 



230 LOO OF THE "pet." 

ships, except the two blocks and the "Dragon/* 
retnmed, or remained at anchor. 

We followed the blocks, and had a brisk run 
across to Miolo (one of the larger islands which lies 
off Sveaborg). The old two-deckers, under all sail 
and steam, made about nine knots ; and we, under 
all we could spread, did about seven. The run 
across is little more than forty miles, and we arrived 
in time to drink a cup of coffee on board the 
" Hastings,'' and get a good view of the Russian 
batteries before sunset. Our position was a little 
east of the great Isle of Miolo, with the shore of 
Sandhamn to the north ^ upon this shore the 
Bussians were thick and busy as ants, harrowing, 
shovelling, running up earth-works, and trans- 
porting guns most industriously. 

They evidently supposed that the ships intended 
to approach the roads by the entrance between 
Miolo and the main, and in this respect the presence 
of the blocks created a most important diversion. 

The blue cupolas of Sveaborg and Helsingfors 
churches, studded with golden stars, shone brightly 
ill the sunset ; the sails of the boats that crossed 



SVEABORG. 231 

iiDd recrossed, the splash of the oars, and the crop- 
headed, round-shouldered figures of the men, could 
be seen plainly with the glass ; and the whole scene 
was so peaceful that one could scarcely believe that 
the chief hope and wish of the sturdy blue-jackets 
on board, and the long-skirted gray-coats ashore was 
to slaughter and destroy each other on the earliest 
possible opportunity, and all about the Danubian 
Principalities. 

The men-of-war detached their boats in various 
directions, sounding and creeping in vain for infernal 
engines ; some of them approached the batteries, but 
the enemy, not yet infuriated by failure, sensibly ab- 
stained from wasting ammunition on such small deer. 

At ten it was raining heavily, and by midnight it 
blew a gale ; the wind flew from S.W. to N.E., and 
from that point back again to S. by W., and then 
blew home with a will. A heavy broken sea was 
soon tumbling into the roads, which, with the wind 
in this quarter, are entirely exposed. We struck 
our topmast, got up the kedge anchor ready to let 
go, and ballasted it with a pig of iron ; we bent and 
reefed our storm-sails ready to run up at a momenfs 



232 LOG OF THE " PET." 

notice. Unfortunately we did not hanl in the bolt- 
sprit altogether, but contented ourselves with giving 
him a single reef. 

It was fine to see the line-of-battle ships pitching 
their great burly bows into the tumbling sea, the 
spray ever}- now and then flying over their fore- 
castles in a shower ; they got up steam, they let 
go a second anchor, veered 140 fathoms of chain, 
and struck top-gallant masts at midnight. 

I had never before been compelled to ride out a 
gale in a small craft, and this was not a very favour- 
able spot for experimentalising. A few hundred 
yards under the lee was a reef of rugged, murderous- 
looking rocks, with which the gale was fighting out 
some old grudge, and kicking up a frightful clash 
and din. If we should happen to drive clear of 
these, half a mile further was the Sandhamn shore 
with its agreeable little fringe of Russian batteries, 
and perhaps the very troops who fought so well at 
Han go all ready to receive us. 

About two o'clock, when the gale was at its 
height, a heavy sea carried away our boltsprit, and 
the head of the topmast followed. 



SYEABOBG. 233 

We had an hoards hard work clearing the wreck, 
and I feared that the broken spar might be dashed 
through the yessel's bows and send us all to the 
bottom; but a few good strokes of the axe cut him 
clear, and at length we had all the gear coiled away 
in safety, and the vessel dear from lumber. 

The gale wafe heavy, but not lasting; by midday 
on Sunday its force was broken, and in the evening 
it was calm and rainy, and the yacht was riding by 
a good hawser astern of H.M.S. "Hastings;" and 
on Monday, through the kindness of the first 
lieutenant, the little ship was all-ataunto once more. 

It was excellent judgment on the part of the 
Admiral to keep the fleet at Nargon during the 
gale: out of so large a squadron, some would 
certainly have driven, collisions and loss would have 
been the consequence, and our gray-coated friends 
on the rocks would probably have got some 
pickings. 

As it was, however, the sea on Monday was 
covered with sails, and the sky was streaked far 
and wide with long lines of smoke from the steam- 
vessels of the fleets as they came across from 



234 LOO OP THE "pet." 

Nargon ; and, as we could not get a good view of 
Sveaborg from our present position, we got under 
way and sailed outside Miolo to join the main body 
of the fleets. 

As we doubled the north point of the island, the 
whole strength of the enemy*s position opened out 
before us, and certainly my first impression was 
that it was the most impracticable place possible 
for ships to tackle. 

No lofty cliffs, no perpendicular granite forts 
were here to offer a fair mark and crumble down 
under the crushing concentrated fire of heavy ships ; 
no tier upon tier of guns in casemates, but a string 
of low rocky islands, separated by narrow channels 
which the eye could scarcely distinguish, but pre- 
senting, at some distance, the appearance of one 
low shore of broken and shelving ground rising 
gradually, but irregularly, to the height of some 
thirty or forty feet. Along this coast we saw con- 
tinuous lines of sloping earth batteries, showing 
nothing for a mark but the very muzzles of the 
guns : further back, where the ground rose, little 
stone forts of seven or eight guns nestled in every 



SVEABORG. 235 

nook, and here and there naked guns, mounted 
en barbette upon every suitable slope of rock. Then 
among the buildings every now and then a window 
could be seen bearing a most suspicious likeness to 
an embrasure ; and, on a closer examination, guns 
were seen projecting where, at first sight, nothing 
but a garret window showed. 

The works which constitute the defences of 
Sveaborg and Helsingfors extend over a convex line 
of some five miles facing the sea. The islands on 
which these are placed are Storholm {Large Island) 
to the eastward, having apparently a small earth 
battery ; next to this, to the westward, the much 
larger island of Sandhamn {Sand Haven), the whole 
south face of which is lined with earth batteries, 
very strong, and, up to the day of bombardment, 
rapidly increasing in size and number. 

These guard the passage inside Miolo. Further 
west, and across a narrow channel is Kungsholra 
{King's Isla/nd), armed also with numerous earth- 
works and a regular sloped battery, like ours at 
Portsmouth or Harwich, on the top. In the little 
channel between this island and Bakholm {Hill 



236 LOO OF THE ''pet. 

liland) a steam frigate lay at anchor, with topmasts 

pointed, steam up, and a large Russian cross flying 

at the stem, and a Russian Jack at the fore. Upon 

Bakholm two large sloping turf forts were placed, 

distinguished by flagstaff's, and mounting guns of 

great range. Facing the N.W. point of this island 

there is, I believe, upon Gustasfvaerd a stone fort 

guarding the passage which mounts three tiers of 

guns. It is entirely invisible from the sea; but it 

has so completely got hold of the imagination of 

newspaper writers and printsellers* artists that I have 

never seen a sketch or a description of Sveaborg 

which does not place a great granite three-decker 

upon almost every island ; and we have been dinned 

and deafened by the cry about stone walls and huge 

granite three-tiered forts at Sveaborg, in the absence 

of which the real strength of the place consists. 

Ships may hammer away at a great granite fort, 

and, at moderate range, eventually hammer it down 

by force of the enormous weight of metal which they 

can hurl against it; but these sloping works, 

and small stone batteries, dotted about wherever 

nature offers a crevice or a slope to protect them. 



SVEABORG. 237 

show no face to the front for horizontal fire ; and 
the only way to deal with them is, to pour in such a 
blaze of shells and rockets as to bum, bruise, and 
stifle everything alive out of the place. 

Between Bakholm and Gustafsvaerd lay the three- 
decked ship " Russia," a large, but apparently old 
vessel. Gustafsvaerd, Vargo, and West Swarto, may 
possibly each have a casemated fortification of great 
extent and regular form, like those represented in 
the fashionable lithographs ; but if so, they are at 
all events perfectly invisible, and the appearance of 
the islands is that which I have just described. 
There was a little waspish battery on Gustafsvaerd, 
facing N.W., which particularly distinguished itself 
by firing at every ship's gig or cutter which came 
within range, and by the singular and absurd inac- 
curacy of its practice. 

There is one English sketch which I have seen 
in the shop windows of London, Gottenburg, and 
Stockholm, bearing the suspicious name of Walker, 
which portrays a huge precipitous island, the 
idea borrowed, I fancy, from the Bass Rock or 
Ailsa Craig, covered with flocks of sea-fowl and 



238 LOG OF THE " PET." 

lashed by ocean billows. Tremendous granite 
batteries frown downward upon the awe-struck 
spectator, and a line-of-battle ship, " dwindled tcf her 
cock," sails underneath, her royal masts reaching as 
far as the knees or the garters of this Pelion upon 
Ossa! All this is sheer imagination. We had a 
good gauge for the height of the islands ; just be- 
hind the highest ground lay a dismantled line-of- 
battle ship stripped to her lower masts, and her 
white mastheads and the fore and main-tops just 
showed above the roofs of the buildings. This was 
not the ** Russia " nor the " Ezekiel," but a third 
ship, which never showed in front. 

The passage between Swarto and Vargo was 
blocked up by numerous sunken ships, and behind 
the little spit of land which ran out from Swarto 
towards these wrecks, the shovel and pickaxe never 
rested, and battery after battery arose sharply 
trimmed and finished. 

North-west of this island, in the fair way, lay 
the " Ezekiel," two-decker, an old-fashioned, high- 
pooped ship carrying guns of great range. The 
north-west side of the fair way is guarded by the 



SVEABORG. 239 

small rocky island of Langom, apparently fortified 
regularly, but standing back, and Stora Bentan, 
somewhat larger, on which the commanding battery 
of St. Nicolas was placed. 

This fort mounted eleven guns facing front ; two 
at least of these were pieces of great range. Occa- 
sionally they threw shells close up to the position of 
our mortars, and once the westernmost gun pitched 
a shell which burst far above, and beyond our 
position. 

The ships* guns and those of Bakholm and Stora 
Rentan appeared to be tiie only pieces which could 
range so far as our ordinary long thirty-twos. 

Beyond Stora Rentan is the town of Helsingfors, 
protected by numerous earthworks and some stone 
forts; but these were not engaged. Still further 
in this direction lie the fortified islands of Bass- 
holm and Maraholm, and behind these the lunatic 
asylum, on which an ingenious correspondent of 
the " Daily News " states tliat he discovered a white 
flag hoisted with the word " Madhouse " on it in 
English. This, he quietly observes, proved to be 
only a dodge of the Russians, and was subsequently 



240 

found to be a powder-magazine, which was blown 
up daring the bombardment. I very much doubt 
if " we discovered," or ever saw it at all. 

Young gentlemen should really mind what they 
write to the newspapers. The building which bore 
the words " Lunatic Asylum " painted upon a long 
canvas or boarded screen, did not hoist a flag ; it 
did not prove to be either a dodge or a powder- 
magazine, nor was it blown up, because no shot, 
shell, or rocket fell withia a mile of it. On the 
contrary, it is still, and has been, a lunatic hospital 
for many years, and is so described in every good 
chart, new or old, that I have seen. 

And yet this precious paragraph has gone the 
round of all the weekly papers, and has been trans- 
lated into half the languages of Europe, as a speci- 
men of English veracity. It is bad enough to 
slander our friends; but everybody does that, and 
we are quite used to it ; but for Heaven's sake let us 
not tell lies about the Russians — ^nothing can be so 
ungenerous, and, I may add, nothing so unne- 
cessary. 

The Russian position is flanked on the right by 



SVEABOBG. 241 

the large islands of Drumsio, M5lkd, and Bdnsklbr, 
with narrow navigable channels between them. 

Of this formidable line of defences, the part 
engaged by the allies extends from Stora Bentan, 
on the N.W., to Bakholm, on the S.E. (both 
inclusive). The cannonade upon Drumsio, as well 
as that upon Sandhamn, was intended as a diver- 
sion, and formed no part of the real attack. 

We sailed at a distance of about two miles in 
front of the enemy, and wer^s compelled soon to give 
up the attempt to count the guns he mounted, not 
from their number, but, as I have said, from the 
extremely patchy and irregular character of the 
works. The roads to the westward of Sweaborg 
appeared full of ships, but on a closer approach we 
observed, not without regret, that the Nargon fleet 
had received no reinforcement of heavy ships, but the 
"Duke," "Exmouth," "Pembroke," "Edinburgh," 
"Austerlitz," "TourviUe," " Duquesne," "Arrogant,'' 
"Euryalus," "Magicienne,""Amphion," "Cossack," 
"Geyser," "Dragon," "Vulture," and "Cruiser," 
with the detached block-ships " Comwallis " and 
" Hastings," constituted the effective force. Thus, 



242 

excluding store-ships, hospital-ship, despatch ves- 
sels, tenders, and the whole generation of unarmed 
craft which swelled up the fleet to a large size, we 
had in reality eight line-of-battle ships and nine 
frigates and corvettes to support the mortar and 
gun-boatsj and put the finishing stroke to any 
success they might achieve. 

We had sixteen sailing mortar-boats, carrying one 
13-inch mortar each, and as many steam gun-boats, 
each armed with two of ^ the heaviest guns in the 
service, many of which they had borrowed from the 
ships. 

The French had six schooner-rigged mortar- 
vessels : each of these very serviceable craft had 
two mortars somewhat smaller than ours; besides 
these they landed four^ other accounts said, six 
mortars on Abraham's Holm, where they made a 
sand-bag battery, about 2400 yards from the fort. 
Their gun-boats are powerful, roomy vessels, but 
deficient in activity, the first requisite of a gun-boat ; 
for this reason they fought at anchor, while ours 
engaged under way.* 
* The French haye two classes of gnn-boats ; the first-cUss is fitted 



SVEABORO. 248 

We found our friends in the fleet in the excite- 
ment of expectation. Bumours, winged like cherubs, 
and equally devoid of any substantial foundation, 
flew about in all directions ; among these the mad- 
house canard was conspicuous. We learned, how- 
ever, from a good authority, that the mortars were 
expected to stand from 300 to 400 rounds. It was 
supposed that the bombardment would last forty- 
eight hours, and it was fondly hoped that the ships 
would take advantage of any conflagration or explo- 
sion which might occur, to go in and win. 

Many officers, judging of Russian fire from 
Sebastopol, thought that the French would be 
shelled out of their battery in three hours, but those 
who remembered the sand-bag batteries at Bomar- 
sund, and the enemy's performances on that occa- 
sion, held a different opinion. 

with sMftmg iron panels to protect their sidoB, and inside these a con- 
siderable thickness of sand ; the gnu-boats of the second-class resemble 



R 2 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE BOldOBABDMENT. 

** There is no light in earUi or hearen, 
But the cold light of stars ; 
And the first watch of night is given 
To the red planet, Mars." 

The night fell, and the buzz of hope and expect- 
ation ceased; to-morrow, was the last word on every 
man's lips, and the only fear throughout the ships 
was, lest that particular vessel should not have the 
prominent part assigned her to which she, above 
all others, was so eminently entitled. 

At night I obtained leave to go with the guard- 
boat, and we passed along the line towards the 
enemy; the wind blew on shore, and no sound 
could reach us, but lights moved about on the land, 
where our long-coated friends were busy with 
barrow and shovel. The French also were not 
idle, for soon we heard a loud and animated chat- 
teration, and a low white boat approached us. 



THE BOMBARDMENT. 245 

"What boat is that?" "No speak Ingleese." 
" Well, will you have a cigar? " " Oui, Monsieur, 
avec . plaisir." Our orders were to maintain the 
entente cordiale, and our lieutenant was very 
zealous in his duties. The boat was full of sand- 
bags for the battery, which the officer told us was of 
six mortiers to be placed on Abraham's Holm. 
Boat after boat followed fall of lively gesticulating 
Frenchmen, and freighted with all the materials for 
the battery. The French have very fine boats, kept 
beautifully clean, and the men are taught to row 
them very prettily. 

As we rowed over the ground, the clear summer 
night gave us an excellent view of the line to be 
occupied by our flotilla. It extended from near 
Ronskar, on the left, nearly to Laghara, upon the 
right, a distance of at least two miles. 

We saw before us a place scarcely inferior in 
strength and resources to Sebastopol, fortified in 
the reign of Gustavus III. by the Swedes, according 
to the plans of August EhrensvlUrd, with the utmost 
care, as the chief stronghold in the debated terri- 
tory of Finland. It was lost to them by treachery, 



246 LOO OF THE " PET.*' 

and now for forty-six years the Russians have been 
busily adding to its strength and its stores. 

It might be that these little islands with their out- 
landish names might soon become as famous in the 
world's history as the now classic slopes of Alma, 
Inkermann, and Balaklava. It might be that the 
long-pending rivalry between the wooden walls of 
Old England and the turf and granite battlements of 
the Czar would be fought out to a fair issue in the 
azure field before us. A few hours might see the 
red cross and the tricolor humbled and bedrabbled 
in the bay, or waving upon the citadel. 

Such were the anticipations of the sanguine; 
others were of a different opinion — it would be one 

of those d d demonstrations; the admiral had 

got 7000 shells sent him, and he might as well 
expend them here as elsewhere. We should make 
a devil of a row, bum a confounded lot of powder, 
and get laughed at for our pains. 

This night and the day following, Wednesday, 
we passed in disappointed expectation ; the French 
battery was not finished, and it was not safe to work 
at it by daylight. A vigilant enemy, however. 



THE BOMBABDMENT. 247 

would have got the range before night, and kept up 
such a fire during the dark hours as to cause our 
allies much loss of time. 

In the evening the unwelcome news reached the 
" Cossack " that she was to be detached with 
" Arrogant," and " Cruiser," to make a diversion on 
the N.W. side of DrumsiS Island, where some 
troops were stationed. 

Nothing is such a nuisance as a diversion. The 
only consolation was, that Capt. Yelverton was not 
a likely man to be selected for a bit of child's 
play, and the " Cossack ** flattered herself that she 
also bore the character of an active and fighting 
ship. 

A little before daylight the three ships got under 
way, i^d steamed slowly up the narrows. On the 
way we saw a steamer and a large sailing gun-boat, 
full of droops, and on reaching our berth, the well- 
known, broad-topped forage-cap and close-cropped 
skull of the Russian soldiers were seen peeping over 
rocks and behind bushes at the ships. 

About seven o'clock, on Thursday, the 9th of 
August, the row began; report after report came 



us 

roaring through the rocks towards us as the long 
line of mortars opened fire ; columns of smoke and 
light whirling rings came circling over the pines of 
Mdlkd, and added to our excitement and yexation at 
being so distant from the scene of action. For a 
long time we could scarcely tell whether the reports 
we heard to the left were from the enemy's guns 
or from the explosion of our shells among his bat- 
teries, but troops were seen hurrying along the 
roads, and over the bridges, to the fortress ; and ' 
after a while we saw with delight the enemy's round 
shot splashing up the water as it fell premature 
and harmless in the sea, while his shells, more 
ambitious, but equally ineffectual, burst one after 
the other, high up in the empty air. 

Bomarsund over again ! The enemy's fire, how- 
ever, freshened up a little after a while, but though 
the noise increased, the effect of his fire was still 
fixed at zero, and there continued throughout the day. 

About nine or ten we saw the gunboats going in, 
and beginning that witches' dance which has been so 
much admired ; and soon after this, as we watched 
the batteries, a lurid pillar of flame and smoke 



THE BOMBARDMENT. 249 

leaped up into the air, and burst abroad like a foul 
tawny fountain, casting an unsightly bouquet of huge 
black fragments far and wide. 

Some gentlemen whose letters have appeared in 
the papers have spoken of the limbs and fragments 
of human beings which they descried careering 
through the skies; they might just as well have 
added noses, eyes, and teeth, while they were 
about it. 

Our friends ashore were, by this time, becoming 
bolder; an oflSlcer, with white kid gloves and a 
cigar, lounged carelessly on a rock, and muskets 
and forage caps were becoming tolerably numerous 
when our commodore signalled to open fire, and all 
three ships blazed away; — round shot crashing 
through the pines, shells knocking up clouds of dust 
and stone, rockets tearing through shrubs and trees 
and empty air, — this work continued at intervals for 
about two hours, and we were all glad enough when 
it ended. It is imsatisfactory to waste ammunition 
upon wood, water, and rock, and still less satisfac- 
tory to destroy an enemy who can make no return. 

"About noon, several Bussian regiments were 



250 LOO OF THB "FBT."' 

diseoTered on one of the small isUndg, thickly 
wooded with pine trees, bosilj engaged in throwing 
up batteries. Two frigates and a eorrette were 
ordered by signal to moTe np and shell the place, 
which was speedily done, and the Rnssians aban- 
doned the island, leaving 500 killed and wonnded 
behind them.*' This is from onr facetious friend of 
the '* Daily News ; " I pray you, reader, take it not 
for mine. Really this gentleman should not pat his 
candle under a bushel ; he is quite lost in narratiye, 
and should turn his attention to fiction, for which 
he has much talent. 

In the " Cossack," we could detect no signs of 
killed or wounded. The " Arrogant's " people saw 
two or three figures borne away on stretchers ; and 
to their great regret observed that they were dressed 
as peasants. An hour afterwards, I passed in the 
" Pet's " pimt between Drumsio and Molko, and in 
a green glade on Drumsio there was a large parly of 
soldiers lounging about, and smoking the pipe of 
security. These rocky islands afibrd excellent 
cover, and troops, well posted, can scarcely be dis- 
lodged by any amount of fire. The object of the 



THE BOMBABDMENT. 251 

ships was to prevent troops crossing to Molko, 
where they would have commanded the roadstead, 
and so far they succeeded perfectly. 

Passing through Molko Sound, I landed on 
Ronskar; here I found three houses with doors 
and windows secured, and a quantity of inflated 
garments of both sexes drying in the air. From 
this point, which flanked both positions, I had a 
capital view of the bombardment. The gun-boats 
circling in front, the mortar-boats, imrigged, blazing 
away with deafening reports, the vessels perceptibly 
flinching from the recoil: the French gun and 
mortar vessels stripped of bulwarks and half taken 
to pieces, and their battery, in the distance, all 
keeping up a rolling fire, while the enemy replied 
at long and lazy intervals. 

I could not fail to observe that our mortar prac- 
tice was admirable: frequently, even by daylight, 
the great black cricket ball could be seen through 
the greater part of its flight, and its fall was gene- 
rally attended by an explosion which was sometimei^ 
seen, but the more frequent and more destructive 
shells were only heard to burst. 



252 

The French mortars were serred yery quiddj, 
and, as far as I could judge, with excellent direc- 
tion : of iheir range it was more difficult to form 
an opinion, because, from a defect in their fuzes, 
they generally burst in the clouds, which rendered 
them not so efficient as they would otherwise have 
been in the hands of our brave and enei^etic 
allies. 

The Russian shell practice was not satisfactory, 
at least not to their well-wishers : their shells almost 
always burst high up in the heavens, except some 
few which exploded upon leaving the muzzle of 
the gun. 

As I was shoving off from the island, I was 
boarded by a boat from one of the mortars, which 
had done me the honour to mistake me for a 
Russian deserter or spy. I returned the compli- 
ment by boarding the mortar, where I found the 
officer in command in a state bordering upon star- 
vation. The ship which had charge of him, had 
forgotten that human nature abhors a vacuum, and 
had left him fasting and hard at work for twenty- 
four hours. Fortunately I was able to procure a 



THE BOMBARDMENT. 258 

botUe of wine and some of Hogarth's preserves, 
upon which we feasted gloriously. 

The report of a Id-inch mortar is at first piercing 
and positively painful, but after a while one becomes 
used to it. The crews of these vessels fortified 
their ears with cotton, and wore woollen flaps on 
either side of their caps, to deaden the crash of the 
report. I found the crew in the act of hoisting a 
shell £rom the hold, where he lives with his com- 
bustible kindred. The shell weighs tnore than 
200lbs., it is projected by a charge of from 16 to 
20lbs. of powder; in its flight, at long range, it 
mounts literally to the clouds, and it falls with a 
force of about 60 tons. It is difficult to believe 
that any building can be proof against such a shock. 
This huge projectile is, of course, hollow, and 
contains a bursting charge of 6 lbs. ; this is ignited 
by a fuze, or small tube, containing a combustible 
composition, which is fired by the powder in the 
mortar : Jit bums fiercely but regularly, and is not 
extinguished by water. The fuzes in the 13-inch 
shells were, I believe, of wood, and are considered 
inferior to the beautiful metal fuzes employed for 



254 

other bombs. Practically, howeyer, nothing conld 
succeed better than the whole apparatus did, and 
though a few of the mortars struck work sooner 
than they should have done, their average perform- 
ance was excellent. 

In front of our mortar, three gon-bbats were 
dancing round and round, giving the enemy a salute 
in succession as their guns bore upon him. Some 
made a waltz a detix temps of it by blazing away 
twice every revolution. All this was at extreme 
range, and of course a great number of shells fell 
short, and others dropped harmlessly in the water 
behind and between the islands as well as upon the 
rocks. Still, two raging fires on Gustafsvaerd, and 
the ruins of an exploded stone fort under the citadel, 
showed that our fire had been felt as well as heard. 

While we were making these observations, Stora 
Bentan opened upon us, and the flagstaflf battery on 
Bakholm, animated by their example, gave us a gun 
or two. The first shot fell sixty or eighty yards 
short, the second and third a little better; after 
about half a dozen attempts they got our range, and 
then ceased firing for an hour. ^ 



r\ 



THE BOMBARDMENT. ,255 

This appeared to be their system of tactics, and 
naturally enough the result was, that several narrow 
escapes occurred; they hit a gun-boat or two 
slightly, without causing any loss of life or any 
damage of importance. So far the resistance of the 
enemy was contemptible enough, probably from 
want of guns of sufficient range. 

The mortar of tlie " Havoc " split in the course 
of the afternoon. One half, weighing between two 
and three tons, went overboard, clearing the bul- 
warks at a jump ; the other half, of equal weight, 
went forward among the men — he also was outward 
bound, but striking against two stout iron stanchions 
he gave up the attempt and tumbled down on deck. 
By the most marvellous good fortune, no one was 
hurt. The mortar was cut smooth and clean 
asunder from stem to stern ; we could now plainly 
see the process — first a small hole like the hollow 
of a walnut-shell forms in the chamber, this in- 
creases with every discharge : after a while, a small 
longitudinal split is observed in the upper part of 
this cavity, the split extends itself to the vent, and 
soon after this the mortar bursts. 



256 Loa OF THB "pet." 

The diseased mortars were repaired by pouring 
molten zinc into the hollow, which held out yery 
fairly for a time. I believe the poor mortars bad 
scarcely received fair play; during the first few 
hours, when the conflagration blazed up, and three 
tremendous explosions followed, it was considered 
of the utmost importance to keep up such a shower 
of shell as should prevent the enemy from putting 
out the fire or saving his combustibles. During 
this time, I believe they fired from twenty to thirty 
rounds an hour, afterwards they were limited to 
eight. 

The next event in the programme was the night 
attack of the rocket-boats. Soon after dark, a 
squadron of cutters and launches from the ships, 
each fitted with a rocket-tube, went in, and began 
letting off their fireworks. It was a splendid sight 
to see the curved flight of the rocketg, five or six 
sometimes under way together, chasing and cross- 
ing each other as they flew. 

The rockets are some of twelve, others of twenty- 
four pounds' weight, and contain a small shell, 
which explodes when the rocket reaches its desti- 



THE BOMBABDlfENT. 257 

nation, and flames and diyectd membra of smashed 
properties could sometimes be seen as they fell 
among the buildings of the enemy. 

All this time little bright stars might be seen, 
careering in bold curvilinear orbits over our heads. 
These were shells from the mortar-boats and 
the French battery, which never rested from their 
work day or night. 

As we watched them, a loud cry among the boats — 
a strange, unusual blaze — and a report followed 
by the shout, " Overboard men I ** " Jump over- 
board." 

This was, I believe, on board one of the 
"Vulture's " boats. Either the back-fire from the 
tube had blown up a rocket unfortunately left within 
reach, or a wayward rocket had come back, as they 
sometimes do, and burst on board ; the result was, 
severe injury by burning to more than one of the 
boat's crew. 

The enemy, with unaccountable apathy, did not 
fire upon the boats ; perhaps, for this reason, the 
rocket practice was not so good as on the following 
night, when the boats were under fire: men of 



258 LOG OF THE "PET." 

all sorts, and especially sailors, get tired of firing 
away at an enemy who makes no return. 

Wearied and stunned by the deafening din of 
the day, I gladly took refuge on board the hospi- 
table " Geyser," where I found my firiends in a great 
state of vexation. They had been compelled to 
give up the greater part of their ammunition to the 
small craft, and a little vampire of a gun-boat was 
alongside, and another astern, sucking the life-blood 
out of the ship. In the middle of this, another 
saucy little gun-boat came panting along, full power, 
astern. "Is that the 'Gazer?'" "Yes— but 
you'll cut that gun-boat adrift." "Is that the 

* Gazer ? ' " " Yes — but that gun-boat is fast to 
us, and you'll be into her." "Is that the 

* Gazer ? ' " was the only reply, so the other gun- 
boat was cast adrift out of his way, and he came 
ftiU puflf under our stem. " Is that the * Gazer? ' " 
"Yes, what can we do for you?*" "I want (so 
many) charges of powder, (so many) shells, besides 
(so many), &c., &c., &c." "Well, weVe got none 
left." " All right, all right, good-night; go a-head, 
full power." ." You had better keep to the north- 



THE BOMBARDMENT. d59 

ward; there's a rock a-head of you." "All right, 
— full power, ifard a-port; hard a-port, stop her." 
Then, " go a-head, full power," — ^then, " hard a-star- 
board, hard a-starboard," and then a rending crash, 
as she dashed into some unlucky craft that was 
snoozing securely at anchor. 

Throughout the night, the dull heavy roar of the 
mortaris shook our ship, and mingled with our 
dreams ; and when we woke, the gun-boats had gone 
in again, and were pirouetting round and round, in 
and out, like so many Perea Ninas ; this morning, 
however, they approached a great deal nearer, and 
the mortars also had hauled in considerably. 

I have heard a great deal about some curious con- 
trivance of a rope, by which these vessels performed 
some equally curious manoeuvres. I believe the 
fact was, that they were simply moored as usual 
(that is, riding by two anchors), and of course they 
could shift their berth a few yards, by hauling on 
either hawser as they pleased. 

This morning showed us piles of black and 
skeleton buildings on Gustafsvaerd and Vargo ; but, 
to the astonishment of all, the beautiful church had 

B 2 



260 LOG OF THE "PET." 

still escaped though one shot had passed through 
the tower. At breakfast time, a heavy column of 
tawny smoke leaped up high into the air, but with- 
out a report, and after this the fire continued to gain 
ground. We stood upon a little island to the left of 
the vessels engaged, and in front of Stora Bentan : 
to our right was No. 1 mortar-boat, blazing away a 
13-inch shell every seven minutes ; close to him a 
French schooner firing two 10|-inch shells at about 
the same interval; and in front of both the gun-boat 
"Dragonne," conspicuous with a huge tricolor, 
firing shells briskly from her guns. 

We were sorry to observe that all the pains of 
the skilful officers on board the French craft were 
unable to rectify the defective condition of their 
fuzes, for, in spite of their utmost care, shell after 
shell burst before it had completed half its flight. 

In front of our island, the saucy little English 
gun-boat No. 16, was engaging the great battery 
on Stora Bentan. Here the Bussians had guns of 
greskt range, and they continually threw shells close 
to the " Dragonne," the schooner, and the British 
mortar ; one shot passed over the island and feU at 



THE BOMBABDMENT. , 261 

a distance of full 4000 yards ; but our little friend, 
16, soon succeeded in drawing all their attention 
to herself; she threw in one shell which pitched 
and burst close to the troublesome gun; another 
actually touched the embrasure, and then the enemy 
knocked off firing, according to his usual system. 
But 16 had several narrow escapes : one man who 
was over the bows sponging the gun was drenched 
with the spray dashed up by a round shot, anotbef 
shot or shell passed between his masts — but "a 
shot may go very near without damage, if he don't 
chance to hit you," as Jack remarked, and so the 
gun-boat escaped unhurt. 

In the mean time, these proceedings were not 
without numerous spectators. On the parade at 
Helsingfors, crowds of soldiers, sailors, and civilians 
— man, woman, and child, were knotted together in 
groups, staring at the progress of ruin, for by this 
time the 6ie extended over many acres. I could 
not, however, detect any symptoms of confusion or 
dismay. Ladies were attired selon la r^gUy not in 
dishevelled locks, but in the bonnets and parasols 
of peaceful life ; and I can positively declare that 



263 LOO OP THE "pet." 

not one of them rent her garments, at least not 
while we were looking. On our own side, the lower 
rigging and the hammocks of the ships were covered 
with swarms of seamen, admiring, applauding, and 
waiting for their own turn to begin. 

So passed the day: the mortars, one after the 
other, showing symptoms of distress ; till none of 
ours were uninjured, and only five remained at all 
fit for service. It was more difficult to ascertain 
the state of the French mortars, as they always 
make the best of everything ; but out of six which 
they had on the island, they burst four, and if the 
same average be applied to the rest, this would leave 
them only five entire, including those which were 
injured short of bursting ; I believe, however, they 
were rather better oflf than this. 

As the shades of night came on, the rocket-boats 
went in again, much closer, and this time their 
practice was excellent. As we went in with the 
second detachment we met them coming out. 
" They've . got your range exactly," was the encou- 
raging greeting as they passed. 

Unfortunately, the wind and the sea got up, and 



THE BOMBABDMENT. 263 

the officer in command allowed our flotilla to drive 
too much to leeward^ and no sooner did we open 
fire than splash came a round shot in amongst us, 
another and another followed, and as we continued 
drifting, it was necessary to cease firing and pull up 
to windward. This we did, but before we gained 
our position, the day began to dawn, and the enemy 
gave us a shot or two with much precision, which 
fell, in fact, close to the prettily painted gig which 
contained the officer in command. If we had re- 
mained, some of us would probably have been hit, 
so that officer prudently gave the order to cease 
firing and return aboard. 

So ended the bombardment of Sveaborg : a few 
more shells were thrown, but after day had fairly 
dawned all operations came to a close, and the fleet 
lapsed into a confused state of satisfaction, wonder, 
and fear. Satisfaction at the success gained by 
the small craft, much greater than we had expected, 
wonder what the admiral was about to do, and fear 
lest prudent counsels — Gallic^ timides avis — should 
be suffered to prevail. 

So passed Saturday; in the afternoon it was 



264 LOO Of THE "pet." 

fonnally annouDced that " operations are closed/' 
and the small craft were withdrawn. 

Sunday was spent, after church, in exchiunging 
calls and writing letters, and on Monday morning 
we all sailed away. 

All this time, however, the enemy showed a degree 
of activity in the construction of defensive works, 
which contrasted strongly with the lethargy he had 
displayed in the use of his guns. Batteries rose, 
sharp, well cut, and perfect ; embrasures were cut 
through solid rock, and heavy guns mounted in the 
same. Combustible buildings were unroofed, pulled 
down, and carried off bodily out of harm*s way, and 
not a gig or cutter could show near them, but they 
blazed away at her with a degree of energy and 
inaccuracy which would have been better bestowed 
upon a bigger mark. I must not forget a French 
gig which went in sounding on Friday evening, and 
approacHed so near that the Russian guns would 
not bear, for they did not fire at him; he held on 
most boldly, and continued within rifle shot, pad- 
dling about and sounding most studiously. 

As he came out, however, they peppered hiln 



THE BOMBABDMENT. 265 

prettily, but not being the best of gunners, they 
failed to hit him. 

I believe one of our own captains also went in on 
a similar errand, and showed equal resolution. 

These little events, where a spark of the old naval 
fire is shown, invariably tend to inspirit the men And 
warm up the frost-bitten blood of the service. 

On Sunday evening my friend Mr. Lodge, of the 
Indian army, a great enthusiast in military matters, 
was most anxious to see what damage we had really 
done, and what progress the enemy had really made 
in raising and arming new works of defence. 

Accordingly, an hour before dark, I got the "Pet" 
under way, and we went in; there was a nice 
evening breeze blowing towards the shore, and we 
carried our largest sails. 

A Russian steamer was under way near the bat- 
teries, but we did not think it likely that she 
would venture to chase us. 

Leaving Ronskar and its group of rocky isles on 
the left, we stood straight in for Vargo, passed a 
little low black rock in two fathoms, and reached 
a distance of about a thousand yards, or rather 



266 

less, from the citadel. As we were in the act of 
hauling our wind, a .light puff of smoke leaped 
from the heights of Bakholm, quickly followed 
by the report and the roar of the shot as it 
came nearer and nearer, and plunged sullenly 
inta the sea. 

Another and another followed, the citadel took 
up the fun, the ship " Ezekiel," * not to be outdone 
in courage, joined in the riot, and the great St. 
Nicolas battery, on Stora Bentan, chimed in. Hot 
shot, cold shot, solid shot, hollow shot and shell, 
the whole evil generation of iron projectiles 
were hurled by three batteries of a first class 
Bussian fortress and a line-of-battle-ship, at an 
unarmed and defenceless yacht. At Hango, they 
showed us how Bussian soldiers could fight, and 
here they showed us how Bussian gunners and 
seamen could shoot — and preciously they did 
shoot, their round shot went roaring dismally 
overhead and fell far beyond us in the sea; the 
shell came curvetting towards us, their lighted 
fuzes sparkling in the dusk, and fell harmlessly 

* Probably the 74 of^that name whicb fought with us at Nayarino. 



THE BOMBABDMBNT. 267 

fizzing, far away under our lee ; one only burst near 
us, and two at the very muzzles of their own guns. 

We could not help laughing with delight to see 
their abortive and ungenerous missiles plunge stu- 
pidly, one after the other, into the hissing waves. 

We held our course without alteration for perhaps 
ten minutes : Mr. Lodge kindly kept the lead going, 
and I took care of the helm; our high topsail, 
shining white as fairies* petticoats in the sunset, 
was a capital mark, but they never succeeded in 
hitting us, or even throwing a shot decently near. 
As we approached Laghara, the last shot from Bak- 
holm, thrown by a gun of enormous range, flew far 
over us, and this noisy display of puerile and un- 
manly rage came to an end. 

" On Sunday evening an English yacht, the 
* Pandora,* with a party of amateurs, amongst whom 
was a lady on board, happened to get within range 
of the enemy's guns, which fired eighteen shots at 
her, but fortunately they all missed.*' 

"On the evening of the 12th, the *Wee Pet' 
yacht with some officers of the * Cossack* on board, 
and Prince Leiningen among them, much to the 



268 

annoyance of the Admiral, stood in towards the 
forts about nine, and had a regular brisk fire 
opened upon her with red-hot shot and shell, and 
bursting and hitting near her without any results." 

The former of these paragraphs is by the 
ingenious little gentleman in the " Daily News," who 
has already afforded us some diversion. I must do 
him the justice to say that there is not one word of 
sober truth in his whole letter from beginning 
to end. 

The latter paragraph is by another "various 
correspondent " of the same paper, who mistakes the 
"iEolus"for a collier, and the "Tourville" for a 
transport. 

If the officers, the amateurs, the prince, and the 
young lady, were as ambitious of appearing without 
good reason in the newspapers as some people seem 
to be, they would doubtless feel greatly obliged to 
these gentlemen for their condescending notice. 

The " Pandora " yacht, however, was not in any 
way concerned in this trifling aflfair. No officer of 
the " Cossack," or of any other ship, was present ; 
Prince Ernest was not on board, and most decidedly 



THE BOMBARDMENT. 269 

we were not blessed with the presence of a young 
lady. 

It will be seen that these gentlemen have made 
one or two mistakes ; the worst mistake^ however, 
consists in writing long letters to the public papers, 
without taking the precaution to know anything of 
the facts they have attempted to record. 

Scarcely had the last echoes of the Bussian guns 
rolled away among the rocks of Miolo, when we 
observed three dark objects coming out from among 
the little low islands to the westward, and rapidly 
approaching. 

We at once knew these to be boats from the fleet, 
which had most kindly come down on hearing the 
firing, to see whether they could do us any good ; we 
bore down towards them, and soon two boats from 
the " Euryalus " and one from the ** Magicienne " 
were alongside. 

One officer came, he told us, from friendship to 

F , who has friends everywhere ; another for the 

fiin of the thing ; and the third, as he candidly con- 
fessed, in the faint hope of getting into fire under 
some pretext or device. 



270 LOO OP THE "pet. 

This was one proof among many that we received 
of the kindness and friendly feeling of the officers 
of the fleet. We had a merry run hack to the 
roadstead with the boats in tow, the men regaling 
themselves with grog to the health of the " Pet,*' and 
the destruction of the " Booshins ; " and when we 
sailed through the fleet, every ship had a kind greet- 
ing or a word of good-will for us as we passed. 

The result of our reconnaissance was, that we 
were convinced that not only the outside islands, 
Gustafsvaerd and Yargo, were gutted by the fire, 
but East Svarto also, which stands further back, 
was mourning in dust and ashes; and very 
many acres of streets, barracks, and stores 
were burnt and shattered into black and ragged 
fragments. 

Our view was much intercepted by the smoke of 
the guns, but we had no difficulty in making out a 
goodly scene of destruction. 

On the other hand, we could not fail to observe 
that the enemy mounted more guns at that moment, 
than he did before the bombardment. 



CHAPTEE VIII. 

MODERN TACTICS. 

** Bat Johnson was a derer fellow, who 
Knew when and how to cnt and come again, 
And never ran away, except when running 
Was nothing but a valoroos kind of cunning.'* 

It is now pretty generally admitted that we left 
our work at Sveaborg when it was scarcely half 
done, but at the tune and on the spot there was 
some difference of opinion. 

In the first place, there were many who con- 
sidered it a duty, under all circumstances, to 
abstain &om commenting upon the measures of 
their superior officers. These men were generally 
those whose opinions would have been most worth 
having, but they held their tongues and kept silence, 
yea, even from good words. 

On the other hand, there was a large class of 
excitable and sanguine men who loudly protested 



272 LOG OF THE " PET." 

against t)ie modem system of naval war, invoked 
the shades of Nelson and Exmouth, and vowed they 
would cut the service and go pheasant-shooting, as 
being the more adventurous* and warlike pursuit of 
the two. 

Opposed to these were the optimists, who always 
swear by the authorities that be, and are fond of 
writing flaming letters to the papers. According 
to these gentlemen the Eussian fire was terrific, 
unexampled for range and precision : we had 
achieved a great triumph, we had performed 
wonders, we had reduced to ashes a first-class 
fortress, we had inaugurated (I think that is the 
expression) a new era in naval warfare ; and as for 
not doing anything more, the Admiral well knew 
what he was about. 

In the last sentiment, and in that alone, I beg 
leave to express my full concurrence. 

Many circumstances combined to show that 
Admiral Dundas did exactly what he originally 
planned, and that it was not intended under any 
circumstances to do more. 

The fleet not being reinforced, was not in strength 



MODERN TACTICS. 273 

sufiBicient for any decisive measures ; the ships were 
robbed of their best guns and their ammunition 
to supply the gun-boats, and above all, there was no 
reserve of mortars. 

All these things show that the Admiral intended 
to make a demonstration, to satisfy the public, and 
to do the enemy just as much harm as could be 
done without loss or damage to ourselves ; and so 
far we must do that excellent officer the justice to 
admit that he surpassed all our expectations. His 
preparations were made well and secretly, his 
arrangements were judicious and promptly carried 
out, and so far as he went, his success was 
complete. 

On the other hand, we cannot but remark that 
the resistance of the enemy was contemptible, the 
success of the attack beyond our own hopes, and 
yet our fire was suffered to bum out in its own 
socket ; and a British fleet left an enemy with his 
guns unsilenced and his defences scarcely impaired; 
and, without loss or injury, sought shelter in a 
distant roadstead. 

This is all, I am well aware, strictly in accordance 



274 

with the modem maxims of naTal warfare, but it is 
not at all in harmony with those principles which 
made our fleet a world's wonder, and which secured 
us a place in the front rank of European powers. 

Of Nelson's three great victories, two are 
distinctly opposed to the theories of modem 
tacticians ; and yet one of these victories prevented 
a hostile combination, the other extingtdshed an 
invasion. 

The naval service is and must be essentially a 
service of enterprise and daring, and to such a 
service two cautious victories are more prejudicial 
than a glorious defeat. 

At present it seems a maxim that no enterprise 
should be undertaken which incurs a chance of loss 
or a probability of failure ; these principles may be 
well enough in commercial eyes, but it is not thus 
that Cochrane, and Hamilton, and Willoughby, and 
Nelson, and Exmouth, fought. 

As regards this particular enterprise, there can be 
no difficulty in admitting, that if the ships had gone 
in, men, and perhaps ships, would have been 
sacrificed. 



MODERN TACTICS. 275 

If they had gone crawling in, selon la rigle, at 
about two knots an hour, in broad daylight, it is not 
difficult to perceive that the loss would have been 
heavy, though perhaps not out of proportion to the 
stake for which we were playing : for conceive the 
value to this country of a British victory in the 
Baltic, now that we have subsided into the second 
rank at Sebastopol. 

We are not, however, prepared to admit that the 
resources of a seaman could suggest no other 
expedient than this. It was ascertained that no 
artificial obstacles prevented the ships from ap- 
proaching within 500 yards of the batteries ; and as 
regards natural obstacles, where Bussian sailing- 
ships can go by day, British steam-ships should not 
fear to venture even by night. Men who are 
accustomed to ply in the darkest and most tem- 
pestuous seasons through intricate sands, without 
other assistance than the lead and a simple arrange- 
ment of lights, can easily understand that, com- 
manding as we did all the outside islands, which 
surround the approaches, we might have piloted our 
ships in by day or by night if we thought proper. 

T 2 



276 

The nights were dark enough for boats to sound 
every part of the channel in safety ; and even in open 
day there was no great risk in doing so, and plenty 
of men ready and willing to undertake the task. 

On Thursday night, the enemy, probably engaged 
in quelling the fire, or perhaps disheartened by the 
disasters of the day, did not even fire upon the 
rocket-boats, and it is not difficult to imagine the 
panic and dismay which would have been created at 
that crisis by the blaze of 500 guns and the 
explosion of their shells in the narrow limits of 
these islands, a considerable part of which was 
abready on fire. Add to this the uninterrupted fire 
of the Id-inch mortars firom without, and a large 
flotilla of gun and rocket boats closer in, and we 
can scarcely believe that such a shower of fire 
falling upon buildings already dried and heated by 
the neighbouring conflagrations, would have failed 
to bum the whole of them. We know firom General 
de Berg's despatch, how narrowly they escaped a 
still more destructive explosion than any which 
actually occurred; and it seems at iedl events probable 
that out of such a host of fiery projectiles, some 



MODERN TACnCS. 277 

one ill-omened shell or rocket would have forced his 
way into the very vitals of their magazines. 

Be this as it may, everything alive must have been 
driven under cover; and the fires, probably in- 
creased twofold, must have been permitted to revel 
ad libitum. 

As regards the other side of the question, the 
ships would have encoimtered the risk of being set 
on fire or sunk. But men-of-war were not built to 
be looked at, and steam- vessels are not like stone 
batteries, compelled through weal or woe to stand 
fast for ever and abide the issue of the strife. A 
ship has in this respect immense advantages : if the 
fire is too hot for her she can shift her berth ; if she 
sees a weak position she can assail it; if she 
sustain damage, she can retire out of action, and 
allow a firesh ship to supply her place. Add to this, 
that the glare of the conflagration, while it afforded 
us a mark which we could not miss, must have 
rendered all distant objects black and invisible to 
the enemy. 

To do all these things in the dark, among the 
rocks, requires accurate knowledge of the ground, 



278 LOO OF THE "pet." 

a jadicions and nmple arrangement of lights, and 
seamanship of a yery high order. If the thing had 
been attempted without these essential elements, 
the whole enterprise would have failed; half, 
periiaps all, the ships wonld have gone ashore, and 
been knocked to pieces next morning. On the 
other hand, I yentnre to express my belief that 
with proper precautions, and by good seamanship, a 
great exploit might have been performed, and im- 
portant results would have followed. 

It is quite a mistake to imagine that the approach 
of ships to the front of Sveaborg and Helsingfors 
is precluded by the shoalness of the water. The 
water is deep, but thickly dotted with rocks ; these 
are generally marked in MS. charts of good authority 
in the possession of the fleet ; in the same charts the 
fair- way for the Bussian ships is distinctly laid down. 
Our own resources must have done the rest. To 
assert that all this could have been effected without 
risk would be absurd; but it may possibly be 
held equally absurd to suppose that without risk 
any great, glorious, or important result can be 
achieved in war. 



MODERN TACnCS. 279 

As regards the economical part of the case, it is 
said that our Baltic fleet contains the most beautiful 
ships in the world, and we cannot aflford to lose 
them. I admit that I find it difficult to listen with 
patience to such arguments as this. When we are 
shedding blood like water before Sebastopol, shall 
we grudge wood and iron before Sveaborg ? And 
cannot it be said that a ship is never more truly lost 
to her country than when she is slumbering at her 
anchor while her services are required ? A man-of- 
war is a fighting machine ; and if she cannot, or 
may not fight, she is good for nothing. 

It cost us thousands of lives, and we risked thrice 
a hundred ships to gain that prestige, which made 
our navy the terror and admiration of Europe in the 
late war. The name and fame of the British fleet 
was not merely a source of gratification to our 
national vanity, but it was of real sterling value to 
us in negotiation; and in battle it was worth a 
reinforcement of a dozen ships. It is impossible to 
read Admiral Villeneuve's signals at Trafalgar with- 
out perceiving that even the brave and enterprising 
enemy with whom we had then to deal, was beaten—' 



280 

yp^n tcSovXtfo/A^i'oi — ^before a shot had atmck him. 
Again and again that officer found it necessary to 
urge his captains to carry more sail, to keep their 
wind, to close up, to come into action, to take a 
better position. At the Nile, who can fail to appre- 
ciate the spirit in which the same officer writes : — 
" We hoped to have deceived the enemy, but he was 
not to be misled. To see and attack us was the 
affair of a moment." 

Now, if, through regard for economy, we sacrifice 
this prestige, if we allow a feeling to gain ground 
that our ships are not ready, as they ever were, to 
attempt any enterprise possible or impossible ; if a 
notion begins to creep about that British ships are 
shy of shot, it were better and cheaper for us that 
these magnificent vessels, in which we take such a 
well-founded pride, and which our authorities seem 
to love not wisely but too well, were rotting amongst 
the congers. 

I will admit, however, that the best naval officers 
hold different opinions upon the great stone-wall 
question; and an admiral who believes that ships 
cannot contend successfully against batteries, would 



MODEBN TACTICS. 281 

not be acting the part of a good officer if he per- 
mitted himself to be persuaded to engage them. 

But there are other resources — ^the effect of 
vertical shell-firing was neither a secret nor an 
experiment, and it still remains to try the effect of 
other means which have done us good service in 
times past. Above all, it remains for us to shake 
off the odious notion that *' nothing is to be 
done in the Baltic," which has been the bane, the 
incubus, and succubus of the service. We go 
mooning about from place to place, to expend some 
shells, to see if anything can be done, instead of 
sailing with a determination to destroy the place by 
one way or another, a determination which never 
fails to develop a thousand resources, and which, in 
the world's history, has rarely failed to succeed. 

As regards the forbearance which has been 
extended to private property, it cannot be denied 
that we have abandoned a very great advantage, and 
abdicated a power against which our enemy has 
nothing to put to his side of the account. 

In a war between two maritime powers it is for 
the interest of both parties to abstain by common 



283 LOG OF THE " PET.*' 

consent firom destroying the undefended towns 
of the coast This is a matter entirely of con- 
yention, for, of course, on abstract principles 
there is no reason why a trading ship should be 
held by the law of nations to be bonne prise, and a 
trading town should be entitied to immunity. Still, 
it is a convention which, between two equally 
balanced maritime powers, is beneficial to both, and 
sayes a vast amonnt of misery. 

In a French war, for instance, were we to bnm 
Dieppe, our neighbonrs might retaliate upon 
Brighton; and now, in the days of steam, the 
system might be carried out on both sides till every 
seaboard town on either coast would be a heap of 
rubbish. Equal damage would be inflicted upon 
either country, and yet little or nothing would be 
effected towards bringing the war to a termination. 

In the present war, however, the case is different. 
There is no reciprocity whatever. If towns, ship- 
building yards, commercial stores, and the like, 
are to be spared, the advantage is exclusively on 
the side of Bussia, the sacrifice exclusively on the 
part of the Allies. 



MODEBN TACTICS. 283 

The Russians have no access to our possessions, 
while we are in a position to inflict injury upon 
theirs. Consequently, in such a war, if we admit 
the principle that seaboard towns and private pos- 
sessions are to be held harmless, we simply abandon 
one capital advantage which our maritime superiority 
gives us. 

Again, on the score of humanity, it appears that 
the whole theory is wrong. War assumes in its 
very nature the destruction of life — the very busi- 
ness of war is death. It is for this purpose that 
the implements of war are conceived with the utmost 
ingenuity, and constructed with the most refined 
care, to kill ; guns to shoot people through the head, 
swords to cut their windpipes, bayonets to pierce 
their viscera, besides the whole generation of shot 
and shell, asphyxiant and otherwise, all excellently 
contrived to kill. 

While, then, our very end and object is to cause 
the greatest of all calamities, the loss of life, surely 
it is nonsense to make such a fuss about the far 
lesser calamity, loss of goods and chattels. 

We destroy life and property to attain the object 



284 

for which we fight, and in God*s name to bring the 
war to a close. 

Our notion is, that onr enemy will not sncciunb 
till he has sustained a certain loss of men and 
money; and the larger the proportion of money 
oyer men in the horrid bill of costs, the better for 
hnmanity. 

It is, I presume, more humane to reduce our 
enemy by crippling his resources, than by killing 
and mutilating his men. 

And> admitting that a town cannot be bombarded 
without destroying a certain number of peaceful 
inhabitants, it is not easy to see why the free 
citizen of .Beyal or Odessa is entitled, on abstract 
principles of humanity, to more consideration than 
the involuntary serf soldier of the Czar. The soldier 
is, I dare say, very often the more peaceful animal of 
the two; the only difference is, that the peacefdl 
citizen, if he do not like being killed, can run away, 
but the peaceful soldier cannot. Between two fires, 
the rifle in his front and the stick in his rear, he 
is, in my mind, very much entitled to our com- 
miseration. 



MODERN TACTIOS. 

Thus it appears th^t neither policy nor humanity 
call upon us to spare the thriving sea-coast towns of 
the enemy ; and, indeed, a little severity would be 
an excellent lesson to all peppery and warlike kings 
and peoples. 

If it be understood that war with a formidable 
maritime power means, besides the suspension of 
trade, the destruction of every trading town within 
reach of the sea, the burning of their docks, building- 
yards, timber stores, and other properties — ^the reign 
of fire and terror throughout their coasts ; if it be 
understood that no bay, river, or estuary will be 
safe from fire and sword — ^that all their Hulls, their 
Liverpools, their Glasgows, and their Bristols, will be 
in a blaze from one end of their land to the other ; 
if all this be understood by such a war, statesmen 
will be careful how they involve their country in 
such disasters. ' 

On the other hand, if we are to wage war on 
the present system, I do not 3ee what great objec- 
tion a military continental state possessing other 
commercial resources than her shipping, can have 
to a war with England. 



286 LOO OF THE ''PBT. 

The Baltic towns, howeyer, are not generally in- 
habited by RoBsiana. North of the Gulf of flnland 
the lower classes are mostly Finns, the wealthier 
Swedes: and there is reason to suppose that the 
maritime part at least of the population are averse 
to the war, and not ill disposed to the Allies. Again, 
south of the Gulf, Beval, Port Baltic (and Riga), are 
chiefly occupied by Germans, Swedes, and other 
foreigners, whom commercial enterprise has collected 
on the spot ; and the islanders of Dago, Oesel, and 
the Archipelago appear a distinct race, neither 
Finns, Russians, nor Swedes — ^ignorant, inoffensive, 
and miserably poor. 

The presence of this semi-neutral population upon 
the coast is in fact a serious disadvantage to us ; it 
ties our hands, and gives us no advantage in return. 
Of course our admirals are naturally unwilling to 
bring the horrors of war upon such a population, 
and thus the supposed disaffection of our enenoty's 
subjects becomes a protection to him and an injnry 
to ourselves. For my part, I believe that too much 
reliance has been placed upon the supposed 
sympathy of the natives, and that the best policy 



MODERN TACTICS. 287 

and truest humanity would be found in the most 
vigorous and uncompromising measures. 

Another year has been trifled away; the same 
means which have been, so long as they lasted, so 
successful at Sveaborg, might have been employed 
at Helsingfors, at Reval, at Port Baltic, at Viborg, 
and at Cronstadt. If it were determined by the 
authorities that the ships were not to act, at all 
events they should have taken care that the ma- 
terials for other and more cautious measures were 
not deficient; whereas, our gun-boats were out- 
numbered at Cronstadt, and our mortars were 
snuffed out at Sveaborg. We, with all our boasted 
wealth and maritime resources, have been fairly 
beaten by the Czar in the very point in which our 
superiority was most incontestable. We had sixteen 
steam gun-boats, the French six ; and the Czar, I 
believe, no less than thirty-six at Cronstadt. 

England must throw her money, her men, and her 
ships more boldly into the scale, or her place among 
the nations is gone. 

I have said that the attack by the block-ships on 
the turf batteries of Sandhamn formed no real part 



288 

of the affair ; but I should not omit to state, that 
this was the only bit of actual fighting that took 
place. The "Comwallis" and "Hastings," with 
the "Amphion" frigate, approached as closely as 
the rocks permitted to the shore, and the action 
began. The enemy's works were earth-slopes, pre-, 
senting no mark to the ships but the embrasures. 
The distance (I believe, 1000 yards) was too great 
for the ships to act with effect, and the fire of a 
great number of guns was concentrated upon them. 
Two rowing gun-boats also appeared, but were soon 
compelled to retire. 

After continuing the action as lotxg as the 
Admiral's instructions authorised him, ; Captain 
Wellesley ordered the three ships to return to 
their anchorage. 

The "Comwallis" was hulled, repeatedly, and 
had eight men woimded. The " Hastings " escaped 
without loss, the shot passing over her ; the main- 
yard of the " Amphion " was wounded by a red-hot 
shot. I believe it was on board the " Comwallis " 
that a shot passed between the captain and the 
master, knocking away part of the bridge on which 



MODERN TACTICS. 289 

they stood. The boats of these ships were fired 
upoti repeatedly by the exasperated enemy ; on one 
occasion, the master of the " Hastings " descried a 
buoy, or beacon of some kind, which he supposed 
marked a shoal, and he was proceeding to sound 
round it most industriously, when two or three 
shot plunged ihto the water close to him ; on a 
nearer approach, he found that the buoy was one of 
the Russians' practice targets ; and he made the 
best of his way from such a dangerous locality. 

The " Lightning " was also fired upon as she was 
reconnoitring with the admirals on board on 
Sunday afternoon, and our amiable enemies cer- 
tainly allowed nothing small to come near them 
without opening a fire more remarjkable for energy 
than precision. 

And now farewell to Sveaborg, a place which, for 
my part, I shall not quickly forget ; where we beheld 
a succession of most unrivalled fireworks, three ex- 
plosions, and two conflagrations ; where we saw 
with satisfaction what a cautious fleet could do, and 
observed with humiliation what a daring navy might 
have done ; where we passed many a pleasant hour 



290 

with kind and excellent friends ; and where a gale of 
wind and a greeting from the batteries just added 
that little zest to the excitement of the thing which 
was otherwise wanting. I shall take leave of Svea- 
borg with Admiral Hotham's remark on the 14th of 
March, " We must be contented, we have done very 
well ; " and as for Nelson's comment upon the 
admiral's remark, it will be foimd in his Biography. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

STOCKHOLM. 

" Christ, what a night ! how the sleet whips the pane ! 
What lights will those out to the Northward be ? " 

On the evening of the 15th of August we left 
Nargon Roads, and sailed for Stockholm. The short 
summer of these latitudes was already on the de- 
cline; we now rarely had three fine days in 
succession; but strong winds, with unsettled and 
threatening skies, made cruising at sea anxious and 
arduous work, and rendered the constant roll of 
Nargon Boads insufferable. The frigates were dis- 
missed to their old cruising ground, the " Arrogant " 
to Hogland, the " Magicienne " to Cronstadt, 
the " Cossack" and the " Cruiser " to Dager Ort. 
The ill-omened words, " Nothing more to be done,** 
had gone forth, and we thought we might as well go 
forth also. 
We had a strong wind ; and, after taking leave of 

V 2 



2W LOG OF THE "PET.'' 

oar firiends, we hoisted a little tricolor and passed 
throagh the French squadron. Our allies greeted 
OS merrily as we dodged from vessel to Tessel, the 
nsaal form of salatation being, '* Vair fine litde 
ship ! " and " How yoa like Russian shot, sare ? " 

As soon as we had cleared the island, the wind 
and sea got up, dark cloads crowded and heaped 
together in the north, and the glass predicted a 
coming gale. 

At midnight we passed two stately ghosts stalking 
over the sea. These were " Cossack " and " Cruiser " 
slowly dropping down to their dreary cruising ground. 

The sun rose angry and ominous, the wind was 
high and squally; but we lay well up to our course, 
and we made short miles of it as we tore through 
the broken and tumbling sea. 

At breakfast time we saw the high land about 
Dager Ort, and by noon we were clear of the Gulf, 
with our storm-sails set, and half a gale of wind 
abeam of us. 

The gale rose as the sun fell; and, as soon as it 
was dark, I hove her to under reefed try-sail and 
fore-sail for the night. 



•i" 



STOCKHOLM. 293 

The straight course from the Gulf to Stockholm 
is pretty free from dangers, but* to the northward 
are the Bogsk&ren rocks^ an ill-omened name, and to 
the south the Kopparsten, a most dangerous reef. 
Between these there is a clear fair way of many 
leagues, but the compass cannot be trusted im- 
plicitly, and the charts allow too much variation 
(9* I believe is correct, somewhat less than a point, 
whereas the charts allow nearly two points) ; besides 
this, currents are strong and treacherous. These 
.r^asdns induced us to heave our vessel to and lie 
safe and quiet during the tremendous squalls which 
raged at intervals through the night. 

The sea was very heavy, but the vessel was as 
easy to if in a snug roadstead, otir cabin was dry 
and comfortable, and we made fine weather of it as 
Well as we could. 

The next morning we filled upon her again, and 
had a long day's work, thrashing through a con- 
fused and broken sea, the wind gradually heading us. 

At noon we sighted the Bogskluren rocks, and at 
sunset the wind had fallen, the sea had sunk to rest, 
and we were lying quiet and almost becalmed near 



c utrate ta SfiockbolBi, with two or 
Aree Sw^fSah tnden nor v. bokiag hlmrt, wet, 
«fti fian^ooljie m At ^ais hmi kfk ikitm 

As soon M it was fisfat we wai is, took apikt, 
sfti {wned into die prettiest and most sii^nlar 
piece of DSTi^Btion thai I Iiare ever seen. 

The entzance itself is scarceh^ twiee tk ** IVt s " 
length ; on one side a large ro^ on the other a 
hoose, and between the two some ten or twehe 
£ithoins of bine sea. 

These waters are beantifoL Roeks and islands, 
where dark pine-trees and weeping ashes tremhle in 
the breeze ; sheltered creeks, whare Swedish giils 
bathe their white limbs; and warm snnny bays, 
where becalmed vessels droop their lazy sails, and 
bask listless on the sea. 

The purple heather and the bright berries of the 
mountain ash give warmth and colour to the land- 
scape; and at last, when approaching Stockholm, 
you pass close beneath the batteries of Waxholmen, 
and soon after emerge into the beautiful long, 
straight vista that leads to the city; it is like 
fairy-land. 



STOCKHOLM. S95 

On either side dark hills, rocky and well-wooded, 
with white cottages peeping out here and there, in 
every sheltered nook ; and between these fair banks, 
the bright calm lake, blue and tranquil as the mid- 
night sky. And then the white-sailed country boats, 
trailing away like a flock of wild fowl, in single file, 
till they are lost in the distance, or hid in the dark 
shadow of the woods. 

The distance from the sea to Stockholm is about 
fifty English miles. The wind was contrary, but we 
were not sorry to linger in these beautiful channels. 
On our way we encountered hundreds of native 
vessels, and the strange manner in which sails, and 
rocks, and trees, are often blended in the landscape, 
is as peculiar as it is striking. Among these vessels 
were several of those wretched Russian trading 
boats, with their long-haired crews, whose hardihood 
in crossing the sea in these miserable machines 
is marvellous. 

At Waxholmen we were boarded by the Swedish 
guard-ship, to which we brought the news of the 
bombardment, and they were highly delighted at 
the success. 



996 

The fortress ci Wsiholmen is of gnuiHe, 
motmting more thsn a hundred gmis. The £xrt, 
not rery strong in its constmetion, has immense 
sdrantages from its site. 

It is impossible to approach it without being 
raked ; it is eqnaUy impossible to force a passage 
np the channel, withoat passing within a few feet of 
its guns. 

The Swedes are strengthening the place still 
farther, by adding torf slopes, and it will soon be 
an insurmountable obstade "to any naval fiHree 
approaching Stockholm. 

As we came nearer to the city we were waylaid 
by a horde of sea-beggars, hoary old roffians, 
who backed ^their boats' stems close to the Teasel, 
and in croaking voices begged alms for the lore <rf 
God. Our men gave them biscuits, and onr pilot 
gave them evil words, both of which they received 
with evil grace, and so departed. 

Arrived at Stockholm, we let go our anchor in the 
Pall Mall, just at the bottom of Begent Street. 
Really the blaze of lamps, the roll of carriages, the 
stately buildings, the crowds of well-dressed people, 



STOCKHOLM. 297 

suggested this idea ; but, in truth, it was far more 
beautiful, and far more strange a berth for a little 
tempest-tost yacht to rest in. On the port side, 
the king's palace, — on the starboard, the New Mu- 
seum, the Jacob's Church, and the Karl XIII. 
Torg, a large ornamented parade-ground; ahead, 
the Norrbro, or north bridge, crowded with evening 
promenaders; and, under this, a little wooded 
island, where the youthful Stockholmers pass 
their evenings under the tall poplars, in the 
mingled delights of music, love, coflfee, and cognac 
toddy. 

A traveller should paint in sober colours. How 
often has our enjoyment of some pleasant or inte- 
resting spot been marred by the overwrought 
expectation raised by exaggerated description ! 

But for this I should surely rave about Stock- 
holm ; for it certainly is a lovely city. Nature has 
given it wood, rock, and water ; and art, or rather 
accident (for the Swedes have little taste for art), 
has flung down palaces, bridges, churches,, and 
statues, exactly where they ought to be. 

No sordid wharves and dingy purlieus of trade 



298 

defile the banks of the noble stream (for though not 
a river, it is a stream) which washes the white walls 
of Stockholm. Palaces and loffy boildingB, not 
stained by smoke, bat white, or grey, or red, as they 
were hewn from the rock, are built on the brink of 
the water. The town rests upon five islands, 
connected by four bridges and many ferries, and 
the unexpected views of wood, rock, and water, of 
vessels, masts, and sails, produce at every torn the 
most novel and charming effects. 

The churches, of which there are eight or nine, 
have little or no architectural merit, but still they 
harmonise, and tell in the general effect of the 
scene, which is beautiful The Biddarholm church, 
for example, which was Gothic, but has been burnt, 
and Grecised, and altered, till I know not what it is, 
has a spire of the lightest possible open tracery, 
lighter than Antwerp, Strasburg, or Freiburg ; the 
effect is admirable. On investigation it proves to 
^be cast-iron, and very small and insignificant 
besides ; still, the effect is the same. 

The king's palace is a fine regular block of grey 
masonry, with a noble approach called the Lion 



STOCKHOLM. 29T 

Staircase. The effect of the building is excellent ; 
the quiet grey tint harmonises well with the 
simple, handsome form, and it is the point of Stock- 
holm. If you look at it close, it proves to be a vile 
deception of brick and stucco, and the mouldings 
and ornaments are of wood, plaster, or some other 
rubbish; but stand on the Karls Torg, or, still 
better, on the deck of a vessel moored in the Norr 
Strom, and look at it under the bright moonlight of 
a clear northern night, and you care nothing for 
stucco or plaster — it is beautiful. 

East of the city is the Royal Park, or Djurgard. 
Here trees, and grass slopes, and rocky crags, and 
beautiful peeps at the bright surface of the lake, 
with its countless sails, or at the towers of Stock- 
holm, below, afford endless variety, and remind us 
Englishmen of Mount Edgcumbe. These charms 
are duly appreciated by the Stockholmers, and little 
tiny steamers, or boats propelled by oar and paddle, 
arrive incessantly through the summer afternoon, 
some eager for a stroll in the cool shade of the 
Djurgard ; some of jovial aspect and rounded out- 
line, hastening to the sumptuous tavern of Hassel- 



1M LM 




idlers um^m^ Sag a lami^ m. ijomt a£ dam 
isxie tIujimti. I, wbea^^id. 

iviirfyhkttiofi V> Sc^ekkoiou Hsk: 
umI ev>ttditu>i» ^ mem. CiciaHW 

tW liiber with kis €sg»r, die 

Mirt mA her ttatacmij < 

wilb ihm eiMrming bnMd-brisBed ] 

i^Mrmiag tH^ nuddc&lj figures^ 

krtdy fcrigbi D/yrtkem eomplezkns, aad ejcs Use 

Mid eleM' M tlietr natire sides. 

Ntui to tkeiBe follows, perhaps, a group of 
Swediiih sailors, fine large manly fellows, dad in 
bltt«, and with something of a soldier-like bearing 
too. 

Then two or three naval officers, looking just like 
English officers and gentlemen. I can pay them 
no higher compliment ; I would if I could, for they 
are capital fellows, and I have cause to speak well 
uf tlioni. But Lmg before this you must have 



STOCKHOLM. 801 

encountered some Dalecarlians, or heard their 
merry little chirping voices, as they go prattling 
and laughing about. Clad in the bright costume of 
their native villages — snowy kerchiefs, black and 
embroidered jackets, petticoats of various hues, and 
a liberal amount of scarlet stocking, with the most 
comical high-heeled shoes — they are the most pic- 
turesque object of the whole. But this is not 
half that you will see. The whole population turns 
out in their Sunday's best: dandy guardsmen, 
Sunday mechanics, merchant seamen, sleek pastors, 
children of all sizes, and every possible variety of 
Froken, Mamselle, and Jungfru. These are the 
superlative, comparative, and positive degrees of the 
word young woman. 

An hour's walk among them will convince you 
that they are all most good-humoured, unquarrel- 
some, cheerful people, that the gentlemen seem 
to be very gofiod fellows, and the young ladies 
are uncommonly pretty; and I believe a longer 
acquaintance makes very little alteration in this 
impression. 

After we had wandered for some time among the 



S02 LOG OF THE ** PET.** 

grores of the Djargard, at length we fell in with » 
large army of girls and boys, clad in the oniform of 
a charity school, and crowding roond their play- 
ground. We walked in and strolled about : f<Hr some 
time we did not observe what it was that produced 
such a strange impression, as we looked at the nu* 
meroos little he and she things that flocked around 
us ; suddenly we observed that they were silent — 
not a wordy or a shout, or a sound, escaped from all 
those little eager Ups. They were dumb. We had 
stumbled on the deaf and dumb schooL Poor little 
things ! it was melancholy to see them conversing 
after their fashion, with hands, and eyes, and nods, 
but silent as the grave. 

Soon after this a passer-by took pity on our 
hungry looks, and led us to the Hasselbaken — in 
summer the best tavern in Stockholm. 

Here we dined Swedish fashion. First, a glass 
of corn-brandy, supported by bread • and butter and 
an anchovy, or herring, or perhaps a slice of dried 
reindeer, or a bit of large radish. All these things 
are laid out on separate tables, like the skirmishers 
in a battle, and the guests stand round and amuse 



V 



STOCKHOLM. 303 

themselves with this light infantry before they 
charge the solid masses of the dinner. Fish, soup 
(often made of fruit), cotelettes, rosbifs, bifteks, 
salads, and ragouts, ad libitum, succeed each other 
in no particular order, finished off with fruit and 
cream. 

All the provisions are well cooked, and the claret 
is good, and cheap ; a respectable band plays also 
at handy and you dine, if you are fortunate, in an 
open verandah, where you can see, and hear, and 
enjoy the cool breeze, and the amusing sight of the 
crowds that pass. 

If you wish for a still more recherche entertain- 
ment, you take a private room, where you are served 
by a Mamselle. These Mamselles are a peculiar 
and very admirable institution in Stockholm. They 
are young women chosen for good looks and pleasing 
manners, who preside over the entertainments in 
the hotels. They are not servants, and it is a great 
fatix pas to treat them as servants, or offer them 
money. To tell the truth, the Mamselle is apt to 
take it ill if you do not make a little delicate love 
to her. The natives carry this to an extent which 



804 IX>G or THB ** PET." 

rather astonishes a stranger, and of courBe, though 
Qsnally well conducted, Mamselle is always a 
finished coquette. 

The homage they receive, and the practice they 
have at flirtation, giyes them rather a piquant, 
amusing manner, and it makes one smile to sit and 
observe how every one that comes in, smart young 
guardsmen and naval officers, fat citizens and 
gouty old dandies, are received with the same 
invariable good-humour, and all of them come in 
for their share of flirtation. 

The Swedish language is very easy, and I believe 
any tolerable linguist, who takes a good dictionary 
and a regular course of Mamselles every day for two 
or three months, may make himself pretty perfect 
in the vernacular. 

We soon made up our minds to lay the yacht up 
at Stockholm, and pass as much time as v^e could 
in the country. Thus we hoped to have her all 
ready for a cruise next summer, and at the same 
time to acquire what knowledge we could of the 
language and customs of the Swedes. 
' While I was busy laying up the " Pet," and 



STOCKHOLM. 805 

putting her to rights, I found it necessary to cross 
frequently from place to place by the ferries. These 
boats are worked by women, some of them natives 
of Stockholm, old and ugly; others, women who 
come regularly from Dalecarlia for the summer, and 
return in winter with their savings, often their 
dowry, to their native village. 

Accordingly I was conveyed from island to 
island, and from street to street, by these merry 
light-hearted creatures in their funny little ferry- 
boats. The Dalecarlian women, who consider them- 
selves higher caste than other peasants, adhere 
most religiously to their costume, and to the 
manners and customs of their race; and I am 
told, no single instance of frailty or misconduct on 
their part, during their residence in the capital, 
has ever been heard of. 

Their dress is excessively pretty, and though 
they are rather robust, there is a charm in their 
bright, northern complexions, their merry laughing 
prattle, and their invincible good-humour, which 
atones for the absence of more conventional beauty. 

Their boats are generally worked by paddles 



30« LOG OF THE " PET." 

tamed with a crank. On either aide aits one girl 
with }^er hce to the atem, while another aiands 
facing forwards, and so four of them torn the 
paddles and propel the boat. It is rather hard 
work, and when it blows hard the crank is doable 
womaned. On these occasi(»i8 the natnrallj grace- 
ful attitndes in which Hhej place themselyes, each 
with one arm romid the waist of her comrade, and 
the blaze of no less than twelve red stockings, 
forming altogether, if circles conld be squared, a 
by no means plain superficies of abont half an 
acre, make a most norel and pretty ensemble. 

The boat is steered by any chance passenger, 
more or less skilful, and of course collisions are not 
unfrequent; but nothing can disturb the good 
humour of the Dalecarlians ; you may always hear 
them chirping and laughing, x€Xib6va)v hi^qv^ behind 
the rocks and comers before they come in sight, 
and when 4ui English sailor, or some other good- 
natured individual, takes a turn at the crank and 
gives them a rest, then the cackling and fun reach 
their height. 

On one occasion a drunken brute of a mason's 



STOCKHOLM. 307 

lad lay down in one of their boats and refused to 
stir, but grunted, kicked, and cursed, like a savage 
beast as he was. Even this did not put them out 
of temper for an instant, but one little, round, red- 
legged partridge of a girl seized each foot, another 
strapping lass caught hold of his collar, a fourth 
splashed his ugly face with water, and so they 
turned him out, neck and crop, laughing all the 
while at his violent blows and kicks, as if it were 
the best fiin in the world. 

I cannot take leave of the Dalecarlians without 
retailing a characteristic story which I heard. 

A year or two ago one of these girls left her 
village and her lover, and came to Stockholm to 
work for her dowry, as their custom is. It was her 
employment to carry milk from house to house, and 
it so happened that this poor girl was most singu- 
larly beautiful. On the very first morning that she 
went forth with her milk-pail, she was followed and 
persecuted by a lover of high degree. There never 
were such vows, promises, and devices-^they were 
endless ; but equally unlimited, too, was the honour 
of the poor country girl, and her fidelity to h^r 



ISA 




TW Uk0t k/r«r «i 

^0ii% e»MU K4 W 1 

py/r girL Mjokj vfco vodd Kst 1 

^/r m miiie /if fobi cmU Kit i 

vsjr V/ look CO her i 

tbing gr/i Ur ndb m ko^ Oat dK 

ifil^^iere more tkflK ooce to diqKi» 

thai fcJlowed her. 

Th« fftorjr wM told to some of the kdiescT Slock- 
\uAm^ tod thej resolved si onoe to refiere die poor 
maiden from her embamissiiig positioo, and take 
her mider their protection. 

She became quite the rage of the csfHtal; her 
}>ene(actre8ses boo^t her costumes of the most 
beautifol materials, and at ereiy party in Stockholm 
the peasant girl reeeired the homage and admiration 
due to her beauty and her virtue. Pres^its of all 
sorts were confided for her to her hostesses, and 
when the time came for her to return, she was rich 
in silver and gold, as well as in purple and fine 
linen, and so she went to her village home and her 
peasant bridegroom. 



STOCKHOLM. 809 

But, alas ! grief and shame awaited her on her 
return : her lover declared that such wealth could 
not be won by honest means, and he bade her go back 
to the capital, for she should never be his bride. 

In her sorrow, she went like a good honest girl to 
her parish priest, and confided all her woe to him. 
He gave her good hope, and wrote at once to the 
ladies who had protected her, and from them he 
received such assurances of her goodness and virtue, 
and of the care with which they had guarded her 
from all evil, that all unworthy suspicions were 
dispelled, and a happy bridal soon put an end to 
the trials of the lovely Dalecarlian maiden. 

I fear ike rule we laid down for a traveller's 
sketches has not been very strictly observed; but 
believe me, it is difficult to paint a Dalecarlian 
stocking in sober cx)lours. 

One evening we visited one of the little summer 
theatres which are sprinkled about the suburbs of 
Stockholm. 

We read Aristophanes to gain a knowledge of life 
at Athens, so possibly the rechauffe of a Swedish 
farce may give some idea of life at Stockholm. 



STOCKHOLM. 311 

The musical man has a cold, the bouquet man 
pricks his &igers with a rose-bud, and the poet 
evaporates in a sigh. 

The old monopoliser is not yet, however, out of 
all his troubles, for the Englishman (just like those 
stupid English), delighted to hear that the lady is 
unmarried, and caring not a rap whether she is rich 
or poor, proceeds to make desperate love to the 
wife, and despatches a proposal ^in due form to the 
husband. 

With his white bat on his head^ his cigar in his 
mouth, and his trousers half-way up to his knees, 
he falls at her feet, as no doubt we English do. 

Eventually, the whole tribe of suitors discover 
that they have been made fools of, and, with one 
consent, return to the charge ; the Englishman, the 
only one of the lot who behaves honourably, is 
thought a precious fool for his pains. Indeed, the 
whole fun of the thing consists in the incomprehen- 
sible perversity of the worthy Anglo-Saxon, in 
preferring an unmarried girl to another man's wife, 
and so he retires in great dudgeon to bis yacht 
amid the laughter of all concerned. 



31t LOO OF THE " FBT/' 

The naire desire of the lady for admiratioii, and 
her sublime indifference as to who the admirer may 
be, always excepting her hosband, is Tery amusing. 

That sach a plot as this should be appreciated or 
understood at all, implies, one would suppose, rather 
a low code of morals. 

The opera in the winter is said to be Tery good. 
These summer theatres are rather childish affiurs ; 
but a man may trarel through every comer of a 
country, and read Murray's Guide-books for erer, 
and yet know little of the people, unless he goes in 
their ways and visits their haunts and {daces of 
amusement. 

On this principle we went to the Mosebaken, the 
TivoU, and the Boyal Equestrian Circus ; all these 
places, however, were dull, and dirty, like other 
haunts where shopboys and maid- servants go to 
amuse themselves. At the Tivoli they bombarded 
Sveaborg with three sky rockets and a Boman 
candle ; and at the Circus, the great fun was repre- 
senting an Englishman on horseback, the theory 
being that English are not generally able to ride* 
I think, while we were in Sweden, we saw, besides 



STOCKHOLM. 313 

cavalry soldiers, three men and one lady on horse- 
back, possibly four— t?oii^ tout 

To the west of Stockholm is the great Millar Lake, 
and at eight o'clock every morning there is a grand 
bustle on the Biddarholm, for at that hour some 
dozen steam-boats start and sail out upon the M^ar, 
bound for all parts of Sweden. So extensive are 
the lakes and channels, that inland navigation 
entirely supersedes the road, and to the best of my 
belief there is no such thing as a diligence or 
public travelling carriage from the north of the 
land to the south. 

Embarked on board one of these boats, the ex- 
perienced Swedish traveller goes below at once> 
orders a cup of coflfee, and reconnoitres the 
Mamselle; if the young lady proves pretty or 
piquante, he is sure of amusement for the voyage, if 
not, he solaces himself with a cigar and returns to 
the deck. 

The eating and drinking hour on board these 
steamboats and in public taverns generally is dif- 
ferent from our own. 

At an early hour comes a single cup of coffee ; 



.TI4 L06 OP TUM '^ PKT.' 



of 9teaks« cntLeo. diiu winft muL hmat, pceceded, ss 
(■■■L bT bcmifar^ and faEead aid bstteE: 

At three, or tfaaesiMMtB, fflimw tHimpr, itiiieh is 
aaeeond and mure complete editjon of hnaUmsL 
Tin is tbilowed by a onp of coffee ; and tiie fiee£ng 
of tbe Jey is finally would op bj asppeiv at ai^bt or 
niw^^ on rf^** lamni scale aa die dinner. 

Fngtish tEayeOeia genezaHj find hnandj, wine, 
and beer ladiar too p« fawit finida at breakfaii^ and 
the system of atting law fish, raw ham^ and law 
aanaages is opposed to our notions. 

The Swedes are Terr good-natnred. and a little 
civility will induce theuL to make any exceptional 
arrangement which their passengers may desire. 

It is another singular custom that you cannot 
dine at your hotel ; break£ist and supper you can 
have, but for dinner you must go to a tarem. 

It is yery pretty sailing upon the Malar, the yiew 
of Stockholm is quite beautiful, and the rapid inter- 
change of rock and island, wood and water, is yery 
pleasing. The great want is life: more birds, 
beasts, and fishes, more children, more men, and 




STOCKHOLM. 315 

more women. The women, however, appear to the 
traveller more numerous than the inferior orders of 
living beings, for as women always work the boats, 
and one never sees anything alive but a boat, the 
women have a decided advantage. 

Six hours of puffing and paddling, and we arrived 
at Upsala, the chief university town of Sweden, and 
a cathedral city. I must confess that I was disap- 
pointed in Upsala, the town has little of interest but 
the university; the university buildings are simply 
nil, and the students seemed rather a threadbare set. 
The two great points are tiie cathedral and the library. 

The cathedral was once Gothic, and two beautiful 
Gothic porches remain; but with the prevailing 
-depraved taste in these matters, the building has 
been accommodated to the Renaissance style, and 
completely spoiled. The Swedes have a singular 
propensity for using brick in building. The 
country abounds with limestone and granite of the 
most beautiful colours, and as lasting as the 
hills. 

I am informed that brick, in these countries, is 
more expensive, and yet many of the oldest and 



lid ZiJti w 



Incxgm -moat waQs. toi cfae [inrtiBiiif of gaid 

•It* cosEse. wiIL xiat bear intf sngBfimn Tlie 
meaaXB jxe in the worst fini, aOBgonial devices md 
hfrhfn emhtofmii dbtfumfiBg oaa aH ; 

Tke aitua in Sweffiak T.Bdimnw 
nchlj ■iinm<»ti ami fi i m i whRd wkfa. CMidkatii^s md 
exooMs; tke vesQnesDlB of tiift poests SEe alad kand- 
sdine and varied: tfaarvaa^ ia thmi? detab £fiers 
Ettfe firom dat of die CkoEck of &»»& 

The rfaanrri a devoted fea A«& insBiofj of Gvstftws 
Wasa, fike great hero of Sweden; the walk aie 
eorered with paintings rcyregenting liis life in 
I>aleearfia9 his confliets with die Danes* his trinm- 
I^uoit entrj into Stockholm, and finallf the dngang 
»eene, when fofl of years and honours* he todt leaTe 
of the estates oi the realm beCwe his death. In the 
centre of the ehancel is his tomh, a large high 
stmcttire with Latin inscriptions. This is all Tery 



STOCKHOLM. 3l7 

well and very patriotic ; but it is plain enough that 
if there be a God in heaven above, or in the earth 
beneath, to whose honour that chancel is dedicated, 
that God is Gustavus Wasa. 

The cathedral also contains the tomb of Karl 
von Linnhe, commonly called Linnaeus, and there 
are some old tombs of knights and dames, some of 
which are good. 

There is a large organ. Several students, with 
their hats on, were in the organ-loft studying and 
practising music. 

We took leave of the cathedral, and went to the 
library, a large and well-arranged building. The 
books are in admirable order ; the absence of damp 
in the climate^ and of taste for letters in the inha- 
bitants, contribute much to their preservation. 

English books abound, and I was surprised to 
find that some of onr new standard works find 
a resting-place in the Bibliothek at Upsala before 
they reach the shelves of the University Library 
at Cambridge. 

There are not many rare books ; the " Codex Ar- 
genteus " is the most valuable MS. ; it is extremely 





Thai waMK/praeBt^ Vbom^ noi hr wbj meaam 
vlio are LononiT memben of llie 






STOCKHOLM. 819 

The chief magistrate of the year is termed the 
Bector Magnificus, and the Professors, I believe, 
according to some system of rotation, bear this 
office. The number of the students is about 1000. 

The Museum, Picture Gallery, and Library, in the 
Palace at Stockholm, are open twice a week. The 
collection of pictures is not large, and contains a 
considerable proportion of second-rate pictures, by 
the old masters. Bembrandt, Ganaletto, Bubens, 
Van Dyck, the Caracci, Titian, Claude, and other 
well-known names, are here. The gem of the collec- 
tion in my opinion, is a most lovely St. Cecilia, by 
Carlo Dolce. So young, so sad, so full of intellect, 
and yet so softly feminine — ^it is most beautiful. 

The Sculpture Gallery contains the Sleeping 
Endymion, a celebrated and very beautiful statue, 
taken from the Villa Hadriana. The other statues 
are chiefly the works of BystrSm and Sergei. 

In the room devoted to Sergei's works, there are 
several little gems of art, small rough sketches in 
clay, fiill of power and spirit, just as they leaped 
from the poet-mind of the artist. 

The most striking is Psyche och Karleken, 



*» ZJ}^ fl» TSK •PTT. 




fKUm kni." Tk srtirt siafc dace i 
htiirjrit he weatmnd v^oa narbfe. 

Ikfintkbriffthebesl: hoU,nm^mml &I1 
4»f fmias — it is a ral creatioii. Cvpid's keai is 
sreited, and Ids luoid strdclied badbsaid to icpd; 
wlule P^die, kneding, clmgs to lum. Her &ee 
has an erpresKiaii of lovii^ siqipficatnig ^^iitp and 
Monow, wlneh is entire^ feminine and admiraUe. 

It is sbrmnge to obsenre how, in each snceeedn^ 
model, the bcdd ori^nal thoo^t is fined down and 
eonTenti0nalised, and at last, in the marble group, 
the idea is chipped and chiselled away, till nothing 
remains bnt a joong lady and gentleman, in rather 
neglected attire, doing pa$es plastiques on a 
pedestal. 

It is mmecessary to add that the marble group 
is usually most admired, and the original model 
least. 

There is much originality and freedom in Pro- 




STOCKHOLM. 321 

fessor Bystrom's works, which are very numerous, 
and are justly held in high esteem by the Swedes. 

In the Library is the " Codex Aureus," ori- 
ginally given to the cathedral at Canterbury, by 
King Alfred, there to be retained so long as the 
sacrament of baptism should endure. « 

It next came to light in Italy, and was purchased 
and added to the Boyal library at Stockholm. It is 
very beautiful, and of great value.* 

In the same room is the Devil's Bible, an enor- 
mous MS. folio, on ass's hide ; it contains, in addi- 
tion to the Bible, a history in twenty -four books, by 
St. Isidore Hispalensis. I could not get at the 
history of the book, or the cause of its strange title. 
All I could learn was, that Satan is in the habit of 
perusing its pages in the evening. I have no doubt 
that there is some interesting legend connected with 
this strange and enormous work, and I greatly 
regretted that the crowd, and the hurry, rendered it 
impossible to get any information on the subject. 
The gentlemen whom we knew at Stockholm, and 
the chief booksellers, stuck to the story I have 

* Handbook of NorAem Europe. 



:yii u>'s or THE •nrr." 

(preap in which, haveTer^ ther loU ^m^ with Hach 
grmritT, that ther did not bdcre. Tlioe are aome 
euh'^fOa MS. ktteis of Charies XH^ fMresHred in 
the palace, and a sketch ct one of his battle-fields, 
mdelr bat practicaUT traced bj his own hand. 

Oa»r afternoon we made an excnrsian to Ae 
c^meterr. 

A large level space, in the midst of a dark, 
mournful forest of pines, has been choeen as the 
resting-place tuniixirtipiov for the dead. The aspect 
of the place is peacefol and sad, not bleak and deso* 
late ; the roaring of the gale is softened bj the thick 
pines into low and solemn whispers, the glare of the 
bright northern sky is shaded by their thick dark 
foliage, and shines with subdued and gentle light 
upon the holy ground. 

The field, "Gottes Acker," is very large, and 
tended with religious care. As we walked slowly 
down the paths, we passed many groups who were 
employed in decking the grave of some dear brother 
or sister with summer flowers; in some cases, 
father, mother, and little children were all busy in 
their pious task training some little rose or woodbine 



STOCKHOLM. 323 

to twine around the cross which marked the gate by 
which the absent one had gone to the unseen world. 

On a little low hillock, fresh planted with shrubs 
and flowers, rested a block of grey granite, rough- 
hewn and simple. 

From this pedestal arose, in white brilliant marble, 
the symbol of our faith and hope. In the centre of 
the cross were carved two hands — ^the hand of a 
man and the hand of a woman closely clasped to- 
gether — the cross was perfectly simple, and around 
granite and marble a little pale woodbine crept and 
twined its fair leaves, and clung lovingly and trust- 
fully to the cross. 

The inscription on the pedestal was Ebba Wil- 
helmina Ericsen, aged twenty-three. 

Many of the monuments are very striking ; the 
most usual and the most beautiful were in the form 
of a simple cross, varied by the colour of the granite 
or marble employed. 

A very remarkable one was a rough massive grey 
cross, both parts of which were cylindrical, like the 
branches of a tree ; a fresh and beautiful garland 
was hung around one arm of the cross. 

T 2 



824 

There were a few great headstones with iron 
railings round them, and long inscriptions on them, 
after our English fashion, just enough to show how 
hideous, unmeaning, and out of taste they are when 
placed side by side with the emblem of our 
Redemption ; of all monuments the best and most 
suited to the hopes of a Christian. 

I shall not usurp the showman's functions, and 
exhibit all the lions in the Stockholm menagerie. 
The palaces of Gripsholm and Drottningsholm, the 
Naval College at Karlberg, the churches, and the 
dockyard, are all visible, and are more or less worth 
seeing. The portraits of historical personages, at 
Gripsholm, are very interesting and of great value ; 
it is easy to perceive that the heroes of Sweden 
are Gustavus Wasa, Gustavus Adolphus, Charles 
XII., and Bemadotte ; and of these Gustavus Wasa 
is the chief. 

After having passed a fortnight most agreeably 
at Stockholm, we took leave of this fair city and of 
our kind Swedish friends, and embarked on board the 
" Thomas Telford," bound through the Gotha Canal 
to Gottenburg. 



STOCKHOLM. 825 

It is pleasant travelling in these little Swedish 
steamboats : the country through which they pass, 
though generally waste and desolate, has much wild 
beauty, and many little green nooks break the 
monotony of the endless crag and pine. Of the 380 
miles of water between Stockholm and Gottenburg, 
there are about 50 miles canal, 290 of lake and 
pool, and some 49 open sea. 

The least water in the navigable channel is ten 
feet, and the navigation presents no difficulty. A 
pilot is necessary on the lakes, and among the rock|( 
and islands near Landsort. It would be impossible 
to tow up or down astern of a steamer, because the 
locks are just large enough for one vessel, and give 
no room to spare — in fact, the steamers are built 
expressly to fit the locks. A yacht must trust to 
horse-towing in the canals, an occasional pull from 
a steamer, and her own resources. And with the 
help of a gun, a fishing-rod, and a few books, it 
would be a very pleasant excursion. 

The marshes abound with solitary snipe, of 
which we shot several couple : the lakes contain 
large pike, which are taken by burning the water^ 



826 LOG OF THE " PET." 

as Scotch poachers take salmon. The ToyiEige could 
scarcely be done in less than a week; but in a 
yacht, where you have your books, your resources, 
and employments, delay is not so irksome as in a 
passehger steam-boat ; and, in time of peace, when 
there is no prospect of more stirring scenes elsewhere, 
one might pass a month or two pleasantly enough 
in cruising among these friendly, hospitable people. 

In a steamer, the sameness is somewhat irksome. 
At Motala there are large iron-works, worked by 
water-power, and many iron steam-boats are con- 
structed. Among the workmen are many Scotch. At 
Wenersborg, at the southern end of the Wener lake, 
is a large fortified camp, which encloses some three 
hundred acres. Here we saw fifty thousand stand of 
arms stacked in one room. Many convicts are em- 
ployed on the works. As a fortress it is of little value ; 
it would require an army to garrison it, and could be 
shelled to any extent by gun-boats from the lake. 

A few hours' sail from Gottenburg are the Falls 
of Tralhattan. People who come prepared to see a 
real waterfall, and determined not to admire any- 
thing but a real waterfall, will be disappointed, just 



STOCKHOLM. 327 

as such people axe invariably disappointed with the 
Staubbach. 

Others, however, who are content to admire 
what is beautiful, by whatever name it is called, 
will be charmed with the noble amphitheatre of 
rocky hills and pine overshadowing the daik pool 
through which the mighty river, chafed and white 
with Irage^ rushes headlong. 

It is a very pretty sail from Tralhattan to Got- 
tenburg. Here there is abundance of that in 
which Swedish scenery generally fails, life and 
motion. The river swarms with boats and vessels, 
which are, in fact, the carriages of the country : 
corn-fields and level plains relieve the dreary same- 
ness of granite and pine. One looks on a cow or a 
sheep with pleasure, and the eye rejoices as once 
more it rests upon a pig. 

Gottenburg is a regularly built and cleanly town, 
placed in the centre of a swamp. The climate is 
said to be very pestilential. In the great cholera 
year, a long drought and calm prevailed, and at 
length the very air and water turned yellow and 
stank with corruption. 



828 LOG OF THE ** PET." 

Usually, however, it blows half a gale of wind, 
and thus the noisome vaponrs are swept away. It 
is strange that when pleasant sites on hard ground 
abound on all sides, the great Oustaf Adolph should 
have chosen to build his favourite city on a morass, 
and to lay its foundations upon faggots and piles. 

This is the most thriving comiliercial town in 
Sweden, and but for the absurd legislative re- 
strictions upon commerce, would increase rapidly. 
At present, many foreign manufactures, (for instance, 
cloth,) are positively prohibited, and Sweden being 
unable to meet the demand, all such wares are 
smuggled over. The king, the queen, the court, and 
the army, all go about attired in smuggled clothes, 
and the judge who sends the smuggler to jail, has 
himself a smuggled coat upon his back. There is 
some indispensable part of a soldier's uniform which 
is not and has never been made in Sweden, and being 
one of the prohibited imports, is, and has always 
been smuggled over from Great Britain. 

Another standing absurdity is the quarantine. 

Internal quarantine having been found too 
oppressive, has been abandoiied ; but all places in 



STOCKHOLM. S29 

foreign countries infected with cholera, or supposed 
to be infected, are subject to a rigorous quarantine ; 
the only ports in Sweden accessible to such places 
are those where cholera akeady prevails. 

Consequently, if a traveller comes from Copen- 
hagen, which is only suspected, he is refused pra- 
tique at Gottenburg, which is unsuspected ; but he 
may land at Malmo, provided the cholera is raging 
there, and then proceed to Gottenburg as soon as 
he pleases. 

The constitution of Sweden is peculiar. There 
are four representative estates — the nobles, the 
clergy, the burghers, and the peasants. The suf- 
frages are given openly. I suppose that all free 
citizens have the franchise ; but the system of serf- 
dom prevails largely in Sweden. 

The serfs or torpare (villani) hold their little 
patches of land on condition of so many days' 
labour in the week upon the estate of their lord. 
There are two classes of torpare, the one little 
better than slaves, the other not far below the con- 
dition of an ordinary peasant. 

The peasants are usually wealthy. 



880 LOG OF THE " PET." 

The expense of the military establishment is 
defrayed in a singular manner. Every estate in 
the country (with certain privileged exceptions) is 
charged with the support of one or more soldiers. 
When the soldier assumes the toga, the estate is 
bound to provide him with house and land sufficient 
for his maintenance ; and, when called out^ he is 
clothed and equipped from the same source. Of 
course, this is a very inexpensive mode of maintain- 
ing a standing army, but it has grave inconve- 
niences, and among a people less contented and 
good-humoured, or more addicted to politics than 
the Swedes, would be clearly impossible. 

Everybody is Lutheran except foreigners, and 
they do as they please. The livings are small, but 
the parsonage is generally the best and most thriving 
looking house in the village. The bishops are sup- 
ported by the revenues of the largest livings, the 
duties of which are performed by their vicars. 

The Navy List for this year shows a na,val force 
of— 

10 Line-of-battle Ships (two steam). 
8 Frigates. 

8 Brigs and Corvettes. 
6 Schooners. 



STOCKHOLM. 331 

22 Transports. 

256 Ghm-boats. 

12 Steamers. 

The strength of the Swedish navy is in the gun- 
boat service. The vessels now in use are out of 
date, but they will soon be replaced by steam gun- 
boats like our own. The men are an admirable 
force. Enlisted at an early age, they are trained 
and drilled as soldiers and sailors, and in both 
branches of their duty they are excellent and 
efi&cient men. 

The Swedes are, with one accord, strongly in 
favour of the Allies in the present war. Accustomed 
as they have long been to live in fear and terror of 
their strong and encroaching neighbour, they are 
delighted at every success that attends our arms 
and entirely sympathise with us. 

The two services would gladly take a part in the 
struggle ; and a Swedish force in Finland would be 
of the greatest value to us; but, exhausted as 
Sweden was, and half depopulated by the wars of 
Charles XII., she has not yet recovered her strength, 
and her rulers are said to be well aware that their 
strength is to sit still. 



332 LOG OF THE " PET.' 



Their army consists of — 



If en ander arms 7,692 

Indehft, or •oldien diftribated oner the landed propertj S3, 405 

National Guard 95,295 

Gottland National Guard 7,621 



144,013 



The ontlaj for the armj in 1850, was abovt £587,451. 

The popalatioB of Oottenborg in 1850 was 25,372 

„ of Stockholm „ 93,070 

„ of Sweden «« 3^482,541 



CHAPTER X. 

HOMEWARD. 

*' Tes, I said to myself, certainly there is gi*eat pleasure in coming 
back after a tour — at least I know I am always glad to come back to 
that great unexpectorating people to whom I belong, up(m whose domi- 
nions the sun never sets, who are very powerful and somewhat dull, 
free as £u: as constitutions and forms of government go, but as slavish 
as any other nation to the great tyrants, Custom and Public Opinion : a 
people indeed who do not enjoy any exuberant felicity ; but who have 
humour enough to see their faults and shortcomings, which is some 
alleviation.'* 

We would gladly have stayed longer among our 
hospitable friends at Gottenjburg; snipe-shooting, 
trout-fishing, and an approaching bear-hunt on a 
grand scale, were held out to us as temptations, and 
we found them difficult to resist ; but on Tuesday, 
the 11th of September, we took passage by the 
screw-packet " London " for the Thames. 

It was not without regret that we left Sweden, a 
country where we had met with invariable kindness 
and goodwill from high and low; a country which 



• MJiH .il» .hr-iw. T- Tgr-m^^- a^WPS -Wligg 






-J?r 2CiJ~ .dsSLSSfifi. "^;>- Jrrytf- QflS 3IIC iiiA*«'fcHJ y 
Tits gTig; "H*- jSii&E££> tm ^ JXIE5SSSL 9Ci3l: 1^ SlESC^tfT, 

XiEa. :^ cxseraLTOL df ttif o£^«s q gmnntii ie 
i^r"*<>Br A tOT^Lkr k p rtiBiUr u id g£> and come with 
wofwlir friaedcMB, cor pas^Nvts wei« nerer required 



HOMEWARD. 335 

and our vessel and our luggage were suffered to pass 
and repass without search or hindrance. 

The Swedes are essentially a free people, but the 
distinction of classes is very marked with them. A 
Swedish officer could not associate with his men as 
a Frenchman does ; it is contrary to the genius of 
the people ; and the attempt with them, as with our- 
selves, would be irksome and unprofitable to both 
parties. All classes, however, are remarkably frank 
and independent in demeanour. 

It is due chiefly to the good sense and easy dis- 
position of the Swedes, that such a medley of 
anomalous and obsolete institutions as their political 
system, can yield such a healthy crop of freedom, 
loyalty, and contentment, as it does ; and yet in a 
country as free in most respects as our own, a man 
may beat his own serfs with impunity, and I believe 
they are in no way dissatisfied with the arrangement. 

But I find that I have been giving a dry and 
insipid richauff^e of the conversation with which 

our good friend D was wont to beguile the way, 

as we strolled at evening under the trees of the 
Skepsholm towards the *' Pet's" anchorage, where 



LOG OP THE " PET. 

she lay hsi asleep upon the still, deep waters of 
Stockholm. 

And now we were homeward bound, rolling and 
pitching off the Scaw in the good ship ^* London." 
Our cabins and beds were placed a&wartships in 
the vessel, so that with every weather roll, all the 
blood in a man's veins and arteries ran from his 
heels to his head, and as she lurched to leeward, 
down it rushed from his head to his heels, according 
to Mr. Emerson's system of compensation. The 
attendants were sea-sick, and even the captain, the 
most obliging of men, who spoke English very 
nicely, was fain to confess ** I was feel very bad to- 
morrow, but I am devilish better to-night." 

A fair wind aboard a rolling steamer in the North 
Sea is hatefal enough, and we wished more than 
once that we had our little cutter under foot, leaping 
as lively as " roebuck from sea to sea before the 
glorious easterly breeze." 

Much, also, did we wonder what we should find 
going on in England: — ^would our countrymen be 
aware that^ even among our friends and kinsmen on 
the Continent, the decline of England's power, the 



HOMEWARD. 337 

inefficiency of England's army, navy, and govern- 
ment is the topic of the day ? 

Would it have occurred to men's minds that the 
paltry figure we have cut in the war, is causing 
Swede, and Dane, and German, to distrust the 
wooden-walls, and to look to other quarters for a 
counterpoise to the great military power of Western 
Europe — ^that the name and fame of England, which 
cost so much to win, is oozing away from our ships, 
like Bob Acres' courage firom the tips of his fingers ? 

Should we find men in earnest at last ? doubtless 
there would be a military agitation on foot, after 
the fashion of an anti-com-law, or anti-pope, or pro- 
beer-on-Sunday agitation; we should hear the 
rattle of the drum and fife (what a merry sound 
it used to be !) through country village and market 
town : the recruiting sergeant would be seen con- 
spicuous with gay colours and martial form, like 
some Orpheus in uniform, leading sturdy English 
peasants to the tune of '* The girl I left behind me,'* 
firom the plough and the mattock, from the factory 
and the mine; our parks and squares no doubt 
would glitter with military shows to rouse the 



338 LOG OP THE " PET." 

martial spirit of the people; our dockyards and 
ports throughout the British Isles would ring and 
rattle with the sound of preparation. 

Or should we find Leo Britannus, that veteran 
and ever couchant quadruped, still snoozing, after 
his wont ? 

Here and there should we descry a soldier or two, 
just as in times of profound peace, skulking about 
the slums in no particular hurry, deluding now and 
then an unskilful pickpocket or amiable simpleton 
to join the ranks ? 

Should we find the military, according to the 
most approved principles, kept studiously out of 
sight and hearing, while our emissaries abroad are 
sneaking about to bring together some scratch pack 
of a German Legion, or Swiss Legion, or Italian 
Legion, (G^ help them !) — anything, in fact, but a 
good English Legion: for that would be uncon- 
stitutional ? 

While we were speculating upon these un- 
profitable subjects, the pilot came on board and 
told us that Sebastopol was taken, and the ^English 
were repulsed from the Eedan ! 



HOMEWARD. • 339 

It remains only for me to offer my excuses for 
launching these pages upon the wide waters. They 
were written for the most part on board, under 
circumstances which have imparted perhaps too 
much of a salt-water tone. I originally intended them 
for a Magazine * in which one of my former voyages 
was chronicled, and when that intention was aban- 
doned, I felt unwilling to commit to the blaze the 
record of adventures from which we had derived so 
much pleasure. I fear that the constant repetition 
of sea terms and sea topics may prove monotonous ; 
but it would have been absurd affectation to have 
filled my log with moral reflections, poetical effusions, 
or other matters than the daily conflict with the 
winds and waves, which demanded all our energies 
and engrossed our thoughts. 

It must not, however, be supposed that our Jife 
at sea is devoted, without intermission, to pulling 
and hauling. ''Life,'' as a sailor says somewhere, "is 
not all beer and skittles ;" nor is it all knotting and 
splicing at sea. During the long ni^t watches, 
when the great objects of nature, the gods of olden 

* Hmit*8 Tachiing Kagarine. 



840 LOO OF THE "pet." 

time, are our only companions, all sights and 
sounds are in harmony with deep and serious reflec- 
tion. And perhaps the saddest and most thonghtfol 
hours I ever passed have been spent at the helm 
of the " Pety" my only faithful confidant in many a 
waking dream. 

It is a fine manly life at sea. The severe but 
not servile toil, like the slave in the triumphs of 
old, reminds us that we are men: Men, and not 
dandies or lapdogs, to be carried about, fed, combed, 
BJxd cared for by others. 

At sea, our own hands and our own wits are 
responsible for our very lives. A blunder in the 
course, or a wrong rope let go, may often be the im- 
mediate cause of disaster and destruction. All this 
gives a feeling of self-reliance and independence, 
which compensates for many a wet jacket and many 
a weary hour. And then the delight of the quiet 
rest in some foreign haven, where the toil and 
danger that are past give threefold zest to the 
beauty and novelty of the scene; add to this, 
the quaint manners and customs of the genuine, 
not yet snobbified people with whom one comes in 



HOMEWARD. 



341 



contact by sea and land (for a sailor or a peasant is 
not a snob), the acquaintances and even friendships 
that one forms among simple folk in remote places, 
the manly and hearty welcome that one receives : 
these and endless other charms belong to a life at 
sea; — but the crowning delight of all, and yet a 
delight ever mingled with fear and chastened by 
sorrow, is the delight of the happy few who can 
return to an unchanged, welcome Home. 




THE END. 



BRADBURT AND BTAKBi PRIKTRRSj WUITSnUARfl. 



Just Puiblithed, in Two Vols., post 8w, Price 21*. cloth, 

A CAMPAIGN WITH THE TURKS IN ASIA. 

By CHARLES DUlfCAN, Esq. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 



Spectator. 
" These volumes contain an account of a winter residence at 
Erzeroum, a sojourn with the Turkish army at Kars, including the 
short campaign which ended with the hattle of Kurekdere, and the 
to-and-fro journeys from Constantinople, vid Trebizond. The 
novelty of the residence in Trebizond, Ears, and the camp, the 
various characters native and European which the author encoun- 
tered, the picturesque sketches of the Turkish army, and the solid 
information which is scattered through the book, render the 
volumes interesting. The book is not only of present interest, but 
of importance as a future record." 

Examines. 
** Mr. Duncan's book is cleverly written and quite full of inform- 
ation and amusement. Mr. Dimcan tells about the country and 
the people, multiplies anecdotes, depicts Erzeroum, and devotes 
chapters to Ears ; (lescribes the Turkish army, draws portraits of 
General Quyon and his officers, and gives in a graphic narrative the 
history of a campaign. He is a good observer and a ready writer. 
His two volumes are well filled with information, rapidly and 
pleasantly communicated. The book is the work of a well-informed 
active man, who writes with equal liveliness and discretion." 

MoBNiNQ Chronicle. 
** These deeply interesting volumes contain a lucid narrative of 
the campaign made by the Turkish army in the spring of last year, 
and a clear exposition of the causes of its disastrous issue. But 
the book is not confined to military matters ; on the contrary, Mr. 
Dimcan has the true traveller's faculty of describing everything 
remarkable that comes in his way. No one who wishes to compre- 
hend the position of the combatants during the present campaign 
in Asiatic Turkey should omit to study this work." 

Economist. 
" We heartily recommend to every reader, a careful perusal of 
these two excellent volumes. Mr. Duncan's book may be accepted 



OPINIONS OF THE PBE8S. 



M a fidthfiil and tpiriied hiatorj, a highly interesting journal of 
traTtla, and a modest but exciting narratlTe. ICr. Duncan is an 
admirable painter, and actire and enterprising trayellery an acate 
obaerrer, an able writer, and a gallant English gentleman." 

Qlobe. 
"The campaign is yery well told, more from the picturesque than 
the merely military point of view, and the interest and value of the 
Tolumes lie in the personal sketches of the principal actors in that 
campaign, and the descriptions of the country and its inhabitants, 
which are written in a liyely and amusing style. There can be 
little doubt that these volumes will be held very valuable by fntuie 
compilers of the history of the Asiatic campaigns of this war." 

QUARDUll. 

*' This is a book of far greater value than most of those which the 
preaent war has produced. It is a narrative by an acute observer 
and a sensible man, of scenes in which he was himself an actor, 
relating to a portion of the present strife which more exciting 
events have rather withdrawn from notice. Mr. Duncan is a clear- 
sighted and an honest man; he has kept his eyes open, and 
describes straightforwardly what he saw." 

Lkadeb. 
" The general reader who stumbles over the news frt>m Kara or 
Erzeroum, will obtain from these volumes some sound information 
respecting these places, the surrounding country and its inhabitants; 
for Mr. Duncan writes a lively, and indeed an elegant style, and 
conveys to you his impressions with that deamess which residts 
from clear perceptions." 

Press. 

"Our extracts sufficiently attest the varied qualities of Mr. 
Duncan's agreeable and well-timed volumes ; their matter is highly 
useful, and deserves careful attention, while his popular manner 
and lively anecdotes will be certain to secure for him a wide circle 
of readers." 

Standard. 

''These volumes are delightful as a book of travels, but th^ 
possess a much higher interest as describing the cireumstances of 
the war in Asia." 



London: SMITH, ELDEB^ k CO., 65, Cobnhxlx.. 



January^ 1856. 

A CATALOGUE 



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educated."— ^tecitwootf* Magazine. 

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Review. 

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beauty."— JVb7'fA British Review. 

" One of the most remarkable works on art which has appeared in our time*'— Edinburgh 
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in. 
THE SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE. 

Second Edition, with Fourteen Plates draion hy the Author. 
Imperial 8vo, \l. \s. cloth. 

" By the * Seven Lamps of Architecture,' we understand Mr. Ruskin to mean the seven 
ftmdamental and cardinal laws, the observance of and obedience to which are indispensable to 
the architect, who would deserve the name. The politician, the moralist, the divine, will find 
in it ample store of histructive matter, as well as the artist."- ^ramtn^r. 

" From the scries of works upon which Mr. Ruskin is engaged, we can scarcely hope too 
much for art. The brilliant manner by which the present and other works of Mr. Ruskin are 
adorned has placed them at once amongst the books that must be read. The views broached in 
tills volume constitute the most significant piece of criticism which has appeared in the 
English language for very many years."— iV^or^A British Review. 

" Mr. Ruakin's mind is of that vigorous and searching nature which can be satisfied with 
nothing less than the elucidation of pure principles in art. Ho observes and investigates for 
himself, and expresses hunself in a strain of eloquence which rivets tiie mind by its ftilness of 
meaning, and fascinates the fiuicy by its singular appropriateness of language, and richness of 
imagery." — Britann ia. 

*' This eloquent and deeply-instructive volume is a book for amateurs to read ; for it will 
mako the thoughtless thoughtftil, and open new fields of contemplation and sources of interest, 
and suggest and strengthen important principles to a\l."—Ecclesioiogist. 

** Mr. Ruskin's book bears so unmistakeably the nmrks of keen and accurate observation, of 
a true and subtle Judgment and refined sense of beauty, Joined with so much earnestness, so 
noble a sense of the purposes and bushiess of ait, and such a command of rich and glowing 
language, that it cannot but tell powerftiUy in producing a more religious view of the uses ot 
architecture, and a deeper insight into its artistic principles." — Ouardian. 

**W« hall Mr. Ruskin's book: we thank him for his industry; we admire his earnest 
eloquence; and oq almost all (freat matters we defer to his Judgment. He has, indeed, done 
high honor to the architect's calling."— Ms. WiomrwicK in The ArckUed. 

*' A lively, poetical, and thoughtftil book ; rich in refined criticism and gtowfaig eloquence. 
Mr. Ruskin's poetry is alwa>'s to the purpose of his doctrines, and always the Yehicle of acutt 
thought and profound feeling."- iV<M<r'# Magazine. 



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IV. 

THE STONES OF VENICE. 

Now complete in Three Vohimes, Imperial 8ro, icith Fifty- \ 
three rtates and numerous Woodcuts^ drawn hy the Author. 

Price 5Z. 155. 6rf., in embossed cloth, with top edge gilt. , 

EACH VOLUME MAY BE HAD SEPARATELY, VIZ.— I 

Vol. I. The Foundations, with 21 Plates, price 21. 2s. \ 

Vol. II. The Sea Stokies, with 20 Plates, price 21. 2s. \ 

Vol. hi. The Fall, vfith 12 Plates, price ll. lis. 6d 

** This book in one wliich, jx^rliap^, no other man could have written, and one for which the 
world ouKht to bo and will be thankful. It is in the highest defp-ee eloquent, acute, stimulatiiig 
to thought, and fertile in sngKestion. It shows a power of practical criticism which, when fixed 
on a definite oltject, nothing; ubHtird or evil can withstand ; and a power of appreciation which 
has restored treasures of beauty to mankind. It will, we are convinced, elevate taste and 
intellect, raise the tone of moral fuelhig, kindle benevolence towards men, and increase the love 
and fear of God."— 7Vwi*«. 

" The * Stones of Venice* is the production of an earnest, religions, progressive, and infbrmed 
mind. The author of this essay on architecture has condensed into it a poetic apprehension, the 
firuit of awe of (lud, and deli;;ht in nature; a knowledge, love, and Just estimate of art; & 
holding fast to fEict and repudiation of hearsay ; an historic breadth, and a fearless challenge of 
existing social problems, whose union we know not where to find paralleled." — Spectator. 

" No one who has visited Venice can read this book without having a richer glow thrown 
over his remembrances of that city , and for those who have not, Mr. Rnskin paints it with a 
firmness of outline and vividness of colouring that will brii^ it befbre the imagination with 
the fbrce of reality." — Literary Oazette. 

" This work shows that Mr. Ruskin's powers of composition and criticism were never in 
greater force. His eloquence is as rich, his enthusiasm as hearty, his sympathy for all that is 
high and noble in art as keen as ever. The book, like all he writes, is manly and high-minded, 
and, as usual, keeps the attention alive to the last." — Ouardian. 

** The whole work is eloquent and thoughtful, and creative of thought in others. Mr. Rnskin 
invests his dissertation with deep interest, and handles every fragment with a broad grasp. 
This book is a noble innovation upon the old dead talk of architects and amateurs in architec- 
ture." — Examiner. 

" No one who has studied art in Venice will go throu^ this book without such pleasure as 
belongs to a revival of some of his warmest admirations, and the refii^shment of his most 
delicious associations. This work is full of fine things, and of true things." — Athenamm. 

** The reputation which Mr. Ruskin has earned by his fbrmer works will probably receive a 
great accession of lustre firom the * Stones of Venice.' This work may be justly described as 
his most valuable performance, and fitted to become the most popular of all his productions.''— 
British Quarterly Review. 



LECTURES ON ARCHITECTURE AND 
PAINTING. 

With Fourteen Cuts drawn by the Author. Second Edition. 
Crown Svo, price 8s. 6d. cloth. 

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will command public attention. His style is terse, vigorous, and sparkling, and his book is bott 
animated and attractive."— ^conomu^ 

" We conceive it to be impossible that any intelligent persons could listen to the lectainif 
however they might diifer from the Judgments asserted, and fh)m the general itropoaitions laid 
down, without an elevating influence and an aroused enthusiasm, which are often man froitAil 
in producing true taste and correct views of art than the soundest historical genenlintiaH 
and the most learned technical criticism in which the heart and the senses own no i 
Spectator. 



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A CAMPAIGN WITH THE TUEKS IN ASIA. 

By CHAKLES DUNCAN, Esq. 
Two Vols., Post 8vo. Price 2 Is., cloth, 

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Turkish army, and the solid information which is scattered through the book, render the volumes 
of present interest and of importance as a future reconl." — Spectator. 

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By col. CIIESXEY, R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., 
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